Midterm Exam Study Guide for Anth 1006, Spring 2010 Erickson The Final Exam is TU May 4, 10:30-12:30 in ITE C80 and will cover: 1) lectures and movies from weeks 7-15 2) readings from Chapters 11-23 in Kottak 3) assigned readings in the Podolefsky et al. Reader for weeks 7-15 4) other assigned readings posted on HuskyCT. 5) The bonus questions will cover the Bringing It All Together (BIAT) readings for Chapters 11, 15, 20, and 23. Format: about 75 questions that will include a combination of multiple choice and T/F. We will be using bubble sheets for electronic scoring of the exams, so please bring a pencil. Discussion section Friday 4/30 will review for exam. Concentrate on these topics from the chapters All Chapters Cultural universals Definitions of basic concepts Chapter 11. The First Cities and States Bands ? small kin-based groups (foragers) Tribes ? economies based on nonintensive food production (horticulture, pastoralism) Chiefdoms ? intermediate between tribe and state (horticulture, agriculture) State- a society with a formal, central government and a division of society into classes Aztec- Last independent Valley of Mexico state (1325 through 1520-Spanish conquest) Settlement hierarchy- communities with varying size, function and building types Teotihuacan- First Valley of Mexico state (100-700) earliest Mesoamerican empire Zapotec State- first Mesoamerican state, in the valley of Oaxaca Primary states- states arising through competition among chiefdoms Chiefdom- ranked society with two or three level settlement hierarchy Stratification- presence of social divisions- strata-with unequal wealth and power Ranked society- society with hereditary inequality but lacking social stratification Egalitarian society- society with rudimentary status distinctions. Halafian- Early (7500-6500 B.P.) widespread Mesopotamian pottery style Mesopotamia- Area where earliest states developed, between Tigris and Euphrates rivers Attributes of States: A state controls a specific regional territory such as the Nile Valley of Mexico. The regional expanse of a state contrasts with the much smaller territories controlled by kin groups and villages in pre-state societies. Early states were expansionist; they arose from competition among chiefdoms, as the most powerful chiefdom conquered others, extended its rule over a larger territory, and managed to hold on to, and rule, the land and people acquired through conquest. Early States had productive farming economies, supporting dense populations, often in cities. The agricultural economies of early states usually involved some form of water control or irrigation. Early states used tribute and taxation to accumulate, at a central place, resources needed to support hundreds, or thousands, of specialists. These states had rulers, a military, and control over human labor. States are stratified into social classes. Early states had imposing public buildings and monumental architecture, including temples, palaces and storehouses. Early states developed some form of recording keeping system, usually written in script. First writing- invented by 5600 B.P. was first used to keep accounts for trade Empire- mature state that is large, multiethnic, militaristic and expansive Multivariate- involving multiple factors, causes, or variables First states ? names/locations Most state formation occurred during the Uruk period (6100-5100 B.P). Northwestern India and Pakistan, the Indus River Valley state flourished from 4600 to 3900 B.P. First Chinese state, dating to 3750 B.P. was that of the Shang dynasty in northern China Various states in sub-Saharan Africa Major early states of the Western Hemisphere were in Mesoamerica and Peru Archeological evidence for state/chiefdom- most of them had left over architecture like temples, and palaces and also they left behind a developed written system Chapter 12. Method and Theory in Cultural Anthropology Ethnographic methods/techniques: Direct, firsthand observation of behavior including participant observation Conversation with varying degrees of formality, from the daily chitchat to prolonged interviews which can be structured or unstructured The genealogical method Detailed work with key consultants or informants, about particular areas of community life In-depth interviewing, often leading to the collection of life histories of particular people Discovery of local beliefs and perception, which may be compared with the ethnographer?s own observation and conclusions. Problem-oriented research of many sorts Longitudinal research- the continuous long-term study of an area or site Team research- coordinated research by multiple ethnographers Emic- Research strategy focusing on local explanations and meanings Etic- Research strategy emphasizing the ethnographers explanations and categories Interview schedule- form used to structure a formal, but personal interview Questionnaire- form used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents Life history- of a key consultant, a personal portrait of someone?s life in a culture Genealogical method- using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections Key cultural consultant- expert on a particular aspect of local life Sociopolitical organization: regulation or management of interrelations among groups Cultural consultants- people who teach an ethnographer about their culture Father of American Anthropology- Franz Boas Chapter 13. Language and Communication Sapir-Whorf hypothesis- idea that different languages produce different patterns of thought Structure of language: Phonology- study of a language?s sounds Morphology- study of the meaning and word construction Lexicon- vocabulary all the morphemes in a language and their meanings Syntax- arrangement of words in phrases and sentences Phoneme- smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning Phonetics- study of speech sounds- what people actually say Semantics- a language?s meaning system Gendered speech- men and women have differences in phonology, grammar and vocabulary as well as body stances and movements accompanying speech. Nonhuman primate communication- (call systems) communication systems of nonhuman primates Chapter 14. Ethnicity and Race Hypodescent- children assigned to same group as minority parent Ascribed status- social status based on little or no choice Achieved status- social status based on choices or accomplishments Ethnicity- identification with an ethnic group Race- ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis Acculturation- adopting another culture Assimilation- absorption of minorities within a dominant culture Genocide- deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder Ethnocide- destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups Chapter 15. Making a Living Subsistence strategies and social organization/gender roles Foraging-Hunting, Fishing, and Gathering wild plant foods, highly mobile and small group size. Divided by gender and age, food sharing, egalitarian society. Required lots of movement, group decisions are made, and social relations are dense. Horticulture- 1st Cultivating Economy, People plant seeds, roots, tubers. Technology ? Digging Sticks, Swidden Agriculture - Slash and Burn Technique, Shifting Horticulture - Moving to other areas. Kin-based social systems, men generally hunt and clear new fields; women work in the fields and have more political power as food producers. No real leaders and low population density. Agriculture- Supports more people, sedentary farms, technology available, state systems, absolute power emerges. Men are farmers and women are domestic, women lack political power as well. Industrialism- mechanization, division of labor, the ?individual?, class based society, specialization for occupation, machines are moveable. Reciprocity- principle governing exchanges among social equals Negative reciprocity- potentially hostile exchanges among strangers Big man: Main regulatory officials are village heads, ?big men?, descent-group leaders, village councils, and leaders of pan-tribal associations. Limited authority stems from personal traits, accomplishments Lead by persuasion, example, and generosity Like village head, but authority is regional ? influence more than one village Common in South Pacific, especially New Guinea Must be generous ? accumulate and redistribute resources (food and other goods). Temporary regional regulator to mobilize support from several villages for labor or production for specific projects Chapter 16. Political Systems Bands ? small kin-based groups (foragers) Tribes ? economies based on nonintensive food production (horticulture, pastoralism) Chiefdoms ? intermediate between tribe and state (horticulture, agriculture) State- a society with a formal, central government and a division of society into classes Social control in the state- maintaining social norms and regulating conflict, Formal - policy, law, and enforcement Promotion of national belonging Citizenship rather than kin-based concept of nationality sense of being ?One People? or ?One Nation?-Hegemony, Internalize and comply with rulers? values and accept naturalness of domination, Idea of subordinates gaining power some day Separate or isolate and supervise (prison) Chapter 17. Gender Gender roles and subsistence strategies- when gathering is prominent, gender status is more equal than it is when hunting or fishing dominates the foraging economy. Gender status is more equal when the domestic and public spheres aren?t sharply separated. Patriarchy- political system ruled by men Matriarchy- ruled by women but not mirror imaged to patriarchy Gender roles and matrilineal/patrilineal societies- in matrilineal (descent traced through women only) people join the mother?s group automatically at birth and patrilineal, people automatically have a lifetime membership with the father?s group Sexual orientation- sexual attraction to persons of the opposite, same sex or either sex Third sex- a gender category present in almost all indigenous/ non-Western societies, of people who are considered neither completely male, nor completely female. Domestic/public dichotomy- work at home versus more valued work outside Feminization of poverty- the increasing representation of women (and their children) among America?s poorest people. Chapter 18. Families, Kinship, and Descent Cross Cousins vs. Parallel Cousins ? Your Parallel cousins are the children of your parent?s sibling of the same gender (so your father?s brother?s kids and your mother?s sister?s kids) ? Your cross-cousins are the children of your parent?s sibling of the opposite gender (i.e. your father?s sister?s kids and your mother?s brother?s kids) Matrilineal/patrilineal- tracing decent through male/female line Patrilineal Groups- Keep male members together in the group ? Useful for subsistence patterns that require heavy labor investment ? Useful for keeping men together to protect the society from external threats (i.e. War) Matrilineal Groups- Descent traced through the female?s line or group - cooperative labor of women. Husband ? Wife bond is weak Totem- any supposed entity that watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan, or tribe Multiple fathers (partible paternity)- the nurture of a child is shared by several fathers Chapter 19. Marriage Post marital residence patterns-most live together after marriage but in some cultures marriage isn?t consummate until there is a baby born and then the husband will move in with the wife. Dowry/brideprice/brideservice- the bride?s fortune Incest taboo- the forbidden sexual relations with a close relative, it is banned in all cultures. Endogamy- marriage of people within a group Exogamy- marriage outside that group Arranged marriage- a marriage put together by the parents of the individuals for their best interests Dowry- substantial gifts to husband?s family from wife?s group Polygamy- more than two spouses (plural marriage) polygyny-man has more than one wife polyandry-woman has more than one husband Widow remarriage- when a widow remarries after her husband dies because she cannot have ownership of the belongings he left. Chapter 20. Religion Animism- belief in souls or doubles Animatism- a term coined by British anthropologist Robert Marett to refer to "a belief in a generalized, impersonal power over which people have some measure of control" Theism- belief in a god or gods Magic- using supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims Rites of passage-rites marking transitions between places or stages of life Chapter 21. Arts, Media, and Sports Blombos cave artifacts-70,000 years ago the Blombos Cave, S. Africa had remains of finely worked tools, ochre, and engraved artifacts. Ethnomusicology- comparative study of music as an aspect of culture and society Learning about art- part of your culture is learning to appreciate art; it?s a cultural universal Chapter 22. The World System and Colonialism Modern world system ? three worlds: First World-Democratic, capitalist, Modern industrial states,Aligned with U.S.A. Second World-Eastern bloc, former communist states and China Industrializing at time, Today ? former socialist states ?Worlds? Classification Third World Originally the unaligned nations, Came to be the ?developing? world, LDCs Fourth World ? added 1974 nations (cultural entities, ethnic groups) of indigenous peoples living within or across state boundaries (nation states) Marx/Weber social stratification theories Industrial Stratification Karl Marx and Frederick Engels focused on stratification systems associated with industrialization ? sharp separation between two classes. Bourgeoisie: owned means of production Proletariat (working class): had to sell labor to survive Proletarianization: separation of workers from the means of production Karl Marx Class consciousness: recognition of collective interests and personal identification with one?s economic group Viewed classes as powerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence history Theoretical basis for Russian revolution ? Communism Too simple for today?s socio-economic system Gerhard Lenski ? Social equality tends to increase in advanced industrial societies. ? Wealthy control but may no longer own means of production. ? Development of middle class ? skilled workers and professionals ? complicates the class system. Max Weber Three dimensions of social stratification Wealth (economic status) Power (political status) Prestige (social status) Cross-cut by other identities: ethnicity/race, religion, nationality Capitalists dominate politically in most countries, but growing wealth allows higher wages in core areas, but only because of exploitation of the periphery. Ethnocide: destruction of an indigenous culture Genocide: deliberate mass elimination of a group of people Ecocide: destruction of the enviornment Chapter 23. Global Issues Today Culture contact-when two cultures come in contact with one another Legacy of industrialization- Reduced manufacturing sector, developed high-tech computer hardware and software capacities. Based on information rather then manual labor, making the integration of global economies possible. Global climate change- as we use our planets resources they are running out and we are abusing the earth causing climate shifts Disease- clinically evident illness Erickson, Final Exam Review Guide, Anth 1006, Spring 2010 Page PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 4
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