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As defined by the federal government, the annual cost of a thrifty food budget for an urban family of four, multiplied by three to allow also for the cost of housing, clothes, and other expenses. Families below the poverty line are considered poor and are eligible for certain forms of public assistance.
The philosophical belief that government governs best by staying out of people’s lives, giving individuals as much freedom as possible to determine their own pursuits.
The philosophical belief that government intervention is necessary in order to enhance personal liberty and security when individuals are buffeted by economic and social forces beyond their control.
Any of a number of individual-benefit programs, such as social security, that require government to provide a designated benefit to any person who meets the legally defined criteria for eligibility.
Social welfare programs based on the “insurance” concept, requiring that individuals pay into the program in order to be eligible to receive funds from it. An example is social security for retired people.
The requirement that applicants for public assistance must demonstrate that they are poor in order to be eligible for the assistance.
A term that refers to social welfare programs funded through general tax revenues and available only to the financially needy. Eligibility for such a program is established by a means test.
A government benefit that is a cash equivalent, such as food stamps or rent vouchers. This form of benefit ensures that recipients will use public assistance in a specified way.
The idea that all individuals should be given an equal chance to succeed on their own.
The right of every person to equal protection under the laws and equal access to society’s opportunities and public facilities.
A clause of the Fourteenth Amendment that forbids any state to deny equal protection of the laws to any individual within its jurisdiction.
A test applied by courts to laws that treat individuals unequally. Such a law may be deemed constitutional if its purpose is held to be “reasonably” related to a legitimate government interest.
A test applied by courts to laws that attempt a racial or ethnic classification. In effect, the strict-scrutiny test eliminates race or ethnicity as a legal classification when it places minority-group members at a disadvantage.
Legal classifications, such as race and national origin, that have invidious discrimination as their purpose and therefore are unconstitutional.
Refers to programs designed to ensure that women, minorities, and other traditionally disadvantaged groups have full and equal opportunities in employment, education, and other areas of life.
Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, ethnicity, and the like that results from social, economic, and cultural biases and conditions.
Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, ethnicity, and the like that results from
$22,000The federal poverty level in 2009 was $22,000 (b); many liberals believe that this figure is too low.
20More than one-fifth (d) of American children live in poverty, the highest rate among industrialized nations.
the 1996 Welfare Reform ActThe 1996 Welfare Reform Act (d) abolished AFDC, replacing it with the program titled Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). TANF’s goal is to reduce long-term welfare dependency by limiting the length of time recipients can receive assistance and by giving the states an incentive to place welfare recipients into jobs.
citizens in the top fifth get 50 percent of all income
The United States has the highest degree of income inequality of any industrialized democracy. The lowest fifth get less than a twentieth of all income. The top fifth get half of all income (d).
are funded by federal payroll taxes.The federal government collects the payroll taxes that fund unemployment benefits; thus, the correct answer is (c).
The unemployment level reached 25 percent (e) during the Depression, prompting citizens’ demands for relief from the federal government.
created in 1965 and was supported by liberals when first established.Medicare was created in 1965 with the support of liberal Democrats (d) at the time of passage.
Single mothers will lose a portion of their benefits if they refuse to cooperate in identifying the father of their children for child support purposes. Unmarried teenage mothers qualify for welfare benefits only if they remain in school and live with a parent or legal guardian.Within two years, the head of most families on welfare will have to find work or risk the loss of benefits. Americans’ eligibility for federal cash benefits is limited to no more than five years in their lifetime.
rent vouchers.Low-income persons are also eligible for subsidized housing. Most of the federal spending in this area is on rent vouchers (c), an in-kind benefit.
About 90 percent of all revenue comes from state and local governments.More than 90 percent of all public school revenue comes from state and local governments (d).
No Child Left Behind ActThe controversial No Child Left Behind Act (b) of 2001 established these requirements; the other laws do not deal specifically with testing.
1930sThe federal government started to play a significant role in social welfare in the 1930s (d) during the New Deal.
Which of the following is true of social security and Medicare?
They were both created when the Democrats controlled both the presidency and the Congress.Franklin Roosevelt (D) was president in 1935 when Social Security was created and Lyndon Johnson (D) was president in 1965 when Medicare was created. Democrats controlled Congress in both instances, so (e) is the correct answer.
in-kindIn-kind benefits (c) are non-cash payments to recipients.
1935The Social Security Act was passed in 1935 (c), during the Roosevelt administration and the Great Depression.
the United StatesThe difference in attitude toward government-sponsored welfare and market mechanisms between the United States and Europe are a result of different patterns of historical development. The United States is somewhat more accepting of market forces as an allocator of goods to individuals than Europe because democracy in America grew out of a tradition of limited government that emphasized personal liberty, which included a belief in self-reliance.
States can choose to impose more restrictive rules in some areas.Although states can grant exceptions to some of the TANF eligibility rules, the exceptions are limited. States can even choose to impose more restrictive rules in some areas. Thus, the correct answer is (a).
the creation of effective welfare-to-work programsIn the implementation of the TANF program, the biggest challenge facing the states has been the creation of welfare-to-work programs that are effective enough to qualify people for secure jobs.
was created in 1965 and provides health care for the poor.Medicaid was established in 1965 and provides health care for poor people who are already on welfare (d).
What is the current social security tax?
6.2 percent payroll tax on employees and employers
The social security payroll tax is currently set at 6.2 percent (c) on employees and employers.
Geraldine FerraroIn 1984, Walter Mondale (Democrat) selected Geraldine Ferraro (b) to be his vice presidential running mate. It was the first time a woman appeared on the national ticket of either the Democratic or Republican parties.
One area in which African Americans have made substantial progress since the 1960s is
1920With the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 (d), American women gained suffrage in national elections for the first time.
ScandinaviaThe Scandinavian countries (d) rank highest in terms of the percentage of legislative seats held by women, followed by northern European nations. The United States ranks below these countries at about 17 percent. Recent figures for other nations are Sweden (46 percent), the Netherlands (42 percent), and Germany (33 percent).
a call by southern congressmen to resist forced integration in the wake of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision.In 1954, a sizeable majority of whites opposed the Brown decision. In the so-called “Southern Manifesto,” southern congressmen urged their state governments to “resist forced integration by any lawful means.”
race and ethnicity.The strict-scrutiny test is applied to race and ethnicity (e). The intermediate-scrutiny test is applied to gender, and the reasonable-basis test is applied to age.
40Roughly 40 percent (c) live below the government-defined poverty line, compared with about 10 percent of white children.
In the case of United States v. Virginia (1996), the Supreme Court ruled that
male-only admissions policies at state-supported military academies were unconstitutional.The Supreme Court ruled that an alternative program set up at another college did not provide women with a proper equivalent of the unique educational experience offered by the state-supported Virginia Military Institute; therefore, VMI was ordered to admit female cadets
What happened when federal troops withdrew from the South in 1877?
Laws were enacted that segregated the races, and the Supreme Court, through the Plessy decision, tacitly allowed separate and unequal treatment of African Americans.Once Reconstruction ended, whites regained power and enacted segregation laws across the region. These activities were effectively sanctioned by the Plessy ruling, so (d) is the correct response.
Congress made Native Americans official citizens of the United States in ________.
1924Tragically, Native Americans were not officially recognized as citizens until 1924 (d). This status was too late to be helpful, for the Native American way of life had already been largely destroyed.
The Boy Scouts organization could ban gays from participating.The justices determined that the Boy Scouts, as a private organization that has freedom of association, could ban gays because the Scout creed prohibits homosexuality (b).
b. Rhode Island
c. New York
e. None of these answers is correct.Vermont authorized civil unions in 2000, but Massachusetts instituted same sex marriage in 2004, so the correct answer is (e).
The Supreme Court rejected the constitutionality of separate but equal facilities in
Brown v. Board of Education.In Brown v. Board of Education (e), the Supreme Court overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, which established the separate but equal doctrine. Swann sanctioned the use of busing for racial balance. Milliken dealt with the issue of metropolitan desegregation remedies, and United States v. Virginia involved the male-only admissions policy at Virginia Military Institute.
discriminationIn his 1944 book, An American Dilemma, Myrdal argued that discrimination (c) is “America’s curse.”
As a movement leader, Cesar Chavez helped bring about which of the following?
California’s decision to allow migrant workers to bargain collectivelyCesar Chavez (1927-1993) was an advocate of nonviolent protest, and he organized food boycotts that eventually forced California to pass a law giving migrant workers the right to bargain collectively (c).
1870With the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870 (b), African American men were granted the right to vote, though several barriers precluded them from effectively exercising their right until the enactment of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
a Supreme Court decision that prohibited busing across school districts except where district boundaries had been deliberately drawn to keep the races apart.Busing contributed to white flight to the suburbs, which was protected by a 1974 Supreme Court decision that prohibited busing across school districts except where district boundaries had been drawn to keep the races apart.
Congress approved the ERA in the 1970s, but it fell three states short of the three-fourths majority it needed to be ratified. Congress approved the ERA with overwhelming majorities, but it was only ratified by 35 states (38 states are required).
All disabled children were guaranteed a free, appropriate education in ________.
1975Disabled children were not guaranteed an education until the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
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