What is not an assumption of the lifespan perspective?
Development focuses on gains not losses. [False]
Many companies used to require employees to retire at age 65. This is a policy of
What advantage does the longitudinal design have over the cross-sectional design?
It can tell us more about the development of individuals over time.
Which would not be characterized as development?
Memorizing the multiplication tables in the fourth grade
The fact that individuals born in 1980 will develop differently than individuals born in 1880 is best explained using the concept of ______ effects.
Dr. Smith finds that there is a relationship between age and word-identification skills in childhood. This is an example of what type of research?
Based on an observation study of adolescents, a correlation of -.75 has been observed between school performance and time spent in after-school jobs. What can we conclude from this?
High levels of school performance are associated with low levels of working after school.
A father's work situation has just gotten very stressful, causing the father to work longer hours, be preoccupied at home, and be short-tempered with his child. In terms of the impact on the child, the father's work situation would be an example of which of Bronfenbrenner's environmental influences?
What is a major drawback of the experimental method?
Experiments cannot be used to address many important questions about development due to ethical concerns.
Which of the following best describes the role of age in the study of development?
Age is best used as a marker variable for describing, not explaining, development
In contrast to discontinuity theorists, continuity theorists believe what?
Developmental changes occur in small steps without sudden change.
In terms on underlying foundations, which is the most characteristic of Freud's theory?
There are universal patterns of development.
A theory is:
-a perspective on some issue
-an organizational framework to guide interpretation of events
-a guide for generating hypotheses and predictions
Underlying assumptions of Piaget's theory:
-The individual is active in constructing his/her own development
-The child is inherently good or bad
-Development is characterized by abrupt changes in ability
Which of the following assertions would be MOST consistent with the views of nurture?
it is a mother's responsibility to provide optimal care by breast feeding, rather than bottle-feeding, a child.
A key criticism of Erikon's theory of personality development:
His theory is rather vague and difficult to test
A common criticism of learning approaches to human development:
Too little emphasis on genetic and maturational factors
A major contribution of Gottlieb's epigenetic psychobiological perspective is that
The impact of genes and the environment are not independent of each other.
Important contributions of Freud's theory:
-an emphasis on the importance of early experience
-a discussion of the importance of unconscious factors as motivators of behavior
-An emphasis on the importance of emotions in development
Bandura believes in the context specificity of development. How is this expressed in his theory?
Each person has the potential of exhibiting a unique pattern of development due to their unique experiences.
The sex of an individual is determined by:
an X or Y chromosome carried by the father
Color blindess, hemophilia, and baldness are all examples of:
A sperm cell and an ovum each contribute 23, rather than 46, chromosomes to a zygote because they
were produced through the process of meiosis
Major claims of Darwin's theory of evolution
-there is genetic variation in a species
-some genes aid in adaptation to the environment more than other genes do
-genes that aid in adaptation to the environment are more likely to be passed on to future generations than those that do not
An important criticism of behavioral genetics studies:
Heritability estimate may vary as a function of the environment of the individuals being studied
The easy temperament of a baby resulted in frequent and prolonged social interactions with others, which in turn reinforced the development of positive social tendencies of the baby. This is an example of what type of gene-environment correlation?
evocative -- The baby evokes certain responses from others.
The balance of various sorts of genotype-environment correlations shifts with development. Which type of correlation tends to predominate during infancy?
Amniocentesis is a method of detecting birth defects that involves:
drawing fluid from the abdomen of a pregnant woman
The idea that genotype expression depends on optimality of the environment is typified by:
the reaction range
Which pair of people have exactly 50% of their genes in common?
parent and child
The term "cephalocaudal" characterizes what phenomenon?
Development of the head region precedes development of the trunk and limbs.
Organogenesis begins during which stage of prenatal development?
Which is a characteristic of the fetal stage of prenatal development?
The organ systems become capable of sustaining life.
Which of the following is true?
The genetic makeup of a fetus can influence the impact of a teratogen.
Research on the mother's emotional state during pregnancy indicates that:
depressed mothers have babies who are born with higher levels of stress-related hormones.
The first evidence of cell differentiation during prenatal development is seen in the
A child with fetal alcohol syndrome will most likely
have central nervous system damage
The main effect of smoking durin pregnancy is that it:
reduces oxygen and nutrient supplies to the fetus, resulting in small-for-date babies
Most infants who suffered mild anoxia during the birthing process:
overcome cognitive and motor delays by later childhood
When breastfeeding is compared to bottle-feeding:
-breastfeeding children tend to have fewer ear infections
-breastfeeding mothers are at a lower risk for ovarian cancer
-breast milk has a positive impact on the infant's immune system
What seems to be the most important factor for overcoming the problems of low-birth-weight?
attentive and responsive mothers
The purpose of the relatively great amount of sleep time spent in REM sleep by infants may be to:
allow their nervous systems to mature
Plasticity results in the immature brain being
vulnerable to damage and highly adaptable
Which of the following is not true about reflexes during infancy?
They have little functional significance
When and infant attempts to kick a ball, it tends to do so with its whole body. When a first-grader does so, he or he tends to use only a foot. The change best exemplifies the _____ principle.
For most women, monopause
is no big deal
The greatest long-term negative impact of being an early-maturing female involves an increased risk of
engaging in risk behaviors (e.g., sex and alcohol consumption)
Which of the following is true with respect to adolescent brain development?
Certain adolescent behaviors, such as risk-taking, can be traced to immature frontal cortex
Which of the following is accurate regarding neuronal loss in adulthood?
The rate of neuronal loss is relatively constant across adulthood
Which statement concerning aging and health is true?
Aging in the absence of disease has little impact on physical or psychological functioning
Which of the following is an example of secondary aging?
Atherosclerosis caused by a high fat diet
According to the programmed theories, aging and death are
under genetic control
Compared to other people, individuals who have two ApoE4 alleles
have an 8 times greater chance of getting Alzheimers disease
In her study of infant color perception, Dr. Violet simultaneously shows young children two patches of different colors and measures the amount of time they focus on each patch. Dr. Violet's tecnique is known as a _______ task.
Which of the following is true regarding newborn infants' vision?
Much of what young infants see is blurry
Current evidence suggests that the reason infants have a visual preference for faces is that
faces have general physical properties of natural interest to the infant
What can we conclude regarding developmental changes in speech perception?
With age, we become more sensitive to sound discriminations that are relevant in our own language and less sensitive to sound discriminations that are irrelevant
According to the intuitive theorist perspective, infants
have innate knowledge of the world and can reason about the world like adults do
Research on the effects of early experience on perceptual development suggests that:
normal perceptual experience and not just maturation is necessary for normal perceptual development
Examples of cross-modal perception:
-Picking out by sight a toy that you had previously touched
-Identifying which of your two pet cats has jumped onto the bed in the dark by running your hands over it
-Correctly identifying a tootsie Roll pop because of the way it feels in our mouth, after a friend tells you to close your eyes and open your mouth fora treat
Research from the Multimodal Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder Study indicates that the most effective treatment for ADHD
involves both drug and behavioral intervention
What is not negatively affected by aging-related changes in attention?
The ability to visually search for and locate objects in familiar situations
When driving at night, an older person may have trouble seeing well when they exit a lighted freeway onto an unlighted road. The most likely cause of this trouble involves:
slower dark adaptation abilities
Research findings from Murphy suggests that the ability of older individuals to identify food is most negatively impacted by
losses in the ability to smell and cognitive declines impacting memory
Which statement concerning speech perception in adulthood is true?
Older adults are likely to recall few details from a conversation that took place in a noisy restaurant.
Seeing a four-legged animal and calling it a dog because that's the only four-legged animal you've ever seen best demonstrates:
According to Piaget, what is the major new cognitive activity that develops as the child goes from the sensorimotor stage to preoperations?
One key difference between formal operations and concrete operations is that formal operational thinkers
can think about hard-to-imagine possibilities
Jamie doesn't worry very much about contracting the HIV-virus from unprotected sex, saying "I'm a good guy, that can't happen to me." This is an example of
Seven-year-old Sarah has the concept that birds are animals that can fly, but then her teacher tells her about ostriches and bats. Sarah becomes confused about what is and is not a bird. Piaget would say she is in:
Which of the following is true with respect to the development of formal operations?
Attainment of formal operational thought is related to education
Introductory psychology students often complain, "Why do we have to learn all of these theories? Why don't you just teach us the right tone?" According to Perry, such students would be labeled as:
Recent work on cognitive development has suggested that:
preschool children are more advanced cognitively that Piaget gave them credit for
Vygotsky believed that cognitive development is most influenced by which of the following?
Which of the following is an example of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development?
figuring out the answer to your math homework after your sister gives you a hint
The information-processing approach to learning
likens the human mind to a computer
In contrast to Piaget, information processing theorists, such as Case, suggest that the increase in children's ability to perform conservation tasks with increasing age are related to:
increases in the size of working memory
All of the following are evidence of memory in infants and young children:
With regard to memory strategies, a child who has a "production deficiency":
has the capacity to use a particular memory strategy but does not use it spontaneously
According to the Fabricious & Hagen study discussed in class, children often fail to use an effective memory strategy (ex. sorting) because:
the do not attribute improvements in their own performance to use of the strategy
Siegler concluded that when solving problems, most children
use multiple rules and problem-solving strategies
With which of the following tasks would older adults have the least problem?
a memory task where they can use well-practiced memory strategies
Studies of expertise and aging have found that:
older experts can maintain their performance by using their vast knowledge to compensate for other losses
Which of the following is most likely not a major contributor to the aging-related declines in memory performance that are observed in many research studies?
increasing deterioration of the knowledge base after 65
As a typical 80-year-old Irvine would have the greatest number of autobiographical memories from his
teens and 20s
70-yr-old Ace decides that he cannot remain effective at all types of gambling so he decides to focus only on blackjack, with the hopes that this narrow focus will allow him to perform better in this one area. According to the SOC approach, the decision to abandon other forms of gambling represents:
As characterized by Cattell and Horn, fluid intelligence refers to the ability to:
solve novel problems
Sternberg calls the cultural distinction in the definition of intelligence the _______ component of intelligence.
If you want to predict later intelligence using some infant measure, which of the following measures would be best to use with infants?
speed of habituation scores
Which parenting practice is best associated with the development of creativity?
Allowing children the freedom to explore and opportunities to experiment
Which of the following is true with respect to the relation between IQ and occupation?
IQ does the best job of predicting performance in complex jobs
Some children show a lowering of their IQ during their school years. Which factor seems to be the most common cause of this decline?
Living in impoverished environments
Schaie's work on intelligence and aging has shown that:
cohort influences are as great as those due to age
Research on wisdom suggests that
only adults with expertise or experience display wisdom
True statements concerning racial and ethnic differences in IQ:
-The fear of 'stereotype threat' can help explain why African Americans score lower on IQ tests
-Being exposed to a 'culture of tests and the schools' can lead to increases in IQ
-Genetic factors can help partially explain within racial group variation but not between group variation
Research on aging and creativity has shown that older individuals are ______ than younger adults.
as original but less productive with creative ideas
Mental retardation (intellectual disability) is defined as:
significantly below-average IQ deficits in adaptive behavior
Joel reaches up to Daddy with outstretched arms and says "Up!", meaning "Daddy, pick me up!" This is an example of:
Which of the following statements best characterizes the early speech constructions of 2-3 year old children?
Their constructions are ungrammatical, but rule based
During a church service, 4-yr-old Ezekiel turns to his mother and in a very loud voice says, "That man in front of us if fat and ugly." Ezekiel's social vocalization indicated that he has not developed a good sense concerning the ______ of language.
The following are true regarding the interactionist view of language acquisition:
-Biological factors and the environment are both critical components of language acquisition
-Acquisition of language depends on developments in areas such as cognition and perception
-Language develops in the context of social interactions
The fact that children use constructions such as foots and goes (overregularization) suggests that:
children are actively involved in discovering the rules of grammar
In contrast to a mastery orientation, those students who display a learned helplessness orientation often blame their failures on:
internal, uncontrollable causes
The key motivation for someone with a strong sense of performance goals is to
be seen as smart and not dumb
All of the following have been associated with working while in high-school students:
-a decline in school performance
-an increase in depression and anxiety
-an increase in drug and alcohol use
Research on reading programs has shown that the most effective programs
emphasize phonics but do not include some whole language instruction
Among the most important reasons identified for the somewhat poorer academic performance of both African-American and Hispanic-American secondary school students is:
peers do not reinforce academic behaviors
Which best describes achievement motivation during adulthood?
Achievement motivation is more affected by work and family context than by the process of aging
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