palestine 19th century important area for ottoman empire Why was it now important? Lost territoiries in the Balkans, european empires started to show interest in the area in order to try and promote european interest in the area. Called the rediscovery of the Holy Land. Mark Twain- 1869- "The Innocence Abroad", European countries started to open a consulate in Jersalem, giving protection to european subjects in Palestine. It was called the protectorate. - No taxes because really high, not subject to ottoman rule. Drew European subjects to the area, including Jews. Jewish fleeing- influx of large number of both Muslim and Jewish Refugees in the Ottoman empire. The fear of the Ottoman empire for zionism. Nationalsm could lead to instability. Encouraged individual immigration but not mass groups. Russians were constantly in war with the ottoman empire, seen as a fifth column (the enemies behind the borders) Civil War in Spain- anarchists were called the 5th column. What is the Old Yishuv? They were the communities of Jews that had lived in the four holy cities - Jerusalem, Safed, Hebron, and Tiberius, settled in Palestine before 1893. Roughly 10,000 individuals. Nothing to do with zionism. Settled in Palestine for religious reasons. Praying for the Messiah. Supported by thier community, koel- collect donations. Majority were Sephardic Jews. Arived after they were expelled from Spain and Portugal in 1492. Enjoyed full rights of citizenship. Ashkenazi Jews- Came around the 19th century. 2 communities lived seperately but together in the 4 holy cities. Old Yishuv vs. New Yishuv- New Yishuv, Zionists. Was an idealogical constuction. Yishuv means settlement. Why were this Forerunners to the immigration for this country Bad situation for Yemmenites in the Country. Suffered from attempts to convert to islam. There were forced to take certian jobs. Yemmenites went to Palestine according to a Messianic belief. According to this, the messiah was supposed to come back in 1882. Why? There is a verse in the Song of Songs. Not welcome by the Yishuv, settled in seperate neighborhoods outside the city of Jerusalem. They all remained in Palestine. Why? They had nowhere else to go. Immigrants from Eastern Europe- No experience for agricultural work Pushes: poegrums, pinsker, Hovevi Zion 2 main phases: Reason for why two seperate waves (2nd frightend wave) Situation for Jews in Russia became worse. He acknowledged the difficulties for these new Yishuv- economic difficulties, bad farmland, not welcome by the Ottoman empire neither the old Yishuv because it was feared that they would have to share the haluka money. Working the land contradicting the idea of studying torah.
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