The process by which a person's efforts are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal.
Maslow's theory that there is a hierarchy of five human needs:
The assumption that empoyees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to work.
The assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
Herzberg's motivation theory, which proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.
Factors that elliminate job dissatisfaction but do not motivate.
Intrinsic factors that have to do with the job itself and serve to motivate individuals.
McClelland's theory, which says that three acquired (not innate) needs - achievement, power and affiliation - are major motives at work.
The drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards.
The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.
The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships.
The proposition that specific goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals.
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
The way tasks are combined to form complete jobs.
A framework for analyzing and designing jobs thatidentifies five core job dimensions, their interrelationships and their impact on outcomes.
The verticle expansion of a job by adding planning and evaluation responsibilities.
The theory that an employee compares his or her job's input-outcomes ratio with that of relevent others and then corrects any inequity.
The persons, systems or selves against which individuals compare themselves to assess equity.
Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.
Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.
The theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way, based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
A workweek in which employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week.
A scheduling system in which employees are required to work a certain number of hours per week but are free, within limits, to vary the hours of work.
When two or more people split (share) a full-time job.
A job approach in which employees work at home but are linked by technology to the workplace.
A motivational approach in which an organization's financial statements (the "books") are shared with all employees.
Programs that consist of personal attention and expressions of interest, approval and appreciation for a job well done.
Variable compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure.
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