Gesell- Individualized, diverse, specialized. Relationships based on rational will. Legalism- Relationships based on business. Little or no identificatiion within community. Gemein-Strong identification within community. Emotionalism, traditions and holistic conceptions of other members of community.
Mechanical and organic solidarity
Mechanical- Based on everyone being alike being different is not acceptable. Organic- Based on mutual interdependence People cant be self sufficient they have to work together.
Horizontal and Vertical Networks
Horizontal- Something like a food chain, or store chain. Vertical- The example of State farm locating in Normal to have college students come to them after college.
A system that stresses both the logical and the moral necessity of thinking about political life in terms of the requirements of the community rather than the individual.
Ties to common symbols bonds and ideals but not eachother. No face to face involvement no social interaction needed.
Thin and Thick Trust
Thin trust- Background of shared social networks, less frequent shared reciprocity. Thick Trust- Strong and Frequent personal relationships.
The process of restoring a community- valuing restoration over selfinterest and problems. Accountability on citizens to connect with each other and make promises to each other.
Groups of people voluntarily coming together to do good. Talking and working with people around you.
Characterized by actions that are dirty and underhanded.
The Stuck Community
A community that will not develop because of political instability and lack of trust. Most emphasis placed on fear and faults.
Social Capital- Positive and Negative
The theory that all social networks have value weather positive or negative. Positive- Individuals bound by norms of reciprocity and mutual interest. Networks better from individuals and broader society. Negative- Individuals bound by norms of reciprocity and mutual interest that may harm broader society. Networks may be isolate or ethnocentric like gangs.
Bridging and Bonding
Bonding- Connections among individuals and groups with similar backgrounds. Members know one another in many roles or settings. Ties are emotionally charged. Bridging- Connects diverse groups within the community to each other and to groups outside the community. Ties are for a single purpose.
The skills that humans own to benefit the community. It is the most important factor influencing economic growth. Building human capital requires community investment in education and high quality jobs.
Organizations, connections, voice and power. Power can be held by individuals groups or institutions. Focus on who runs things and who is excluded. How resources are allocated.
The natural resources a community has. Trees rivers, parks, minerals, water. Viewed as something to be used as financial or built capital. Some use can lower value of other things: Example: having a park where a business could be.
Resources converted into monetary assets that can be converted into other assets. Needs to be a form of investment to make money. There is a direct link between Human and Financial Capital.
Buildings and infastucture in a community- Schools, roads sewer systems, Main streets.
Values and symbols reflected in clothing, books, art, language, customs. Way they regard the world around them.
Asset Based Community Development (ABCD)
Methodology that seeks to uncover and utilize strengths within a community as a mean for sustainable development. Instead of focusing on problems, needs and deficiencies the ABCD approach helps them become more self reliant by discovering mapping and mobilizing all of their local assets. Assets include skills, dedication,Resources of instituions and everything community can offer.
Community thats important and meaningful-Individuals feelings that they are valued and protection is provided. Also fosters healthy connections for individuals.
What were the key differences that Simmel identified between small towns/rural and the metropolis?
What were the key differences that Simmel identified between small towns/rural and the metropolis?
Small towns- Rhythm of life is slow, rely more on emotional relationships, Life more self contained. Big Towns- Seat of money economy, Impersonal avoid emotional involvement, desire to be different.
What was Simmel‟s primary argument in reference to the metropolis? What were the greatest problems of modern life?
A problem of modern life is that it is hard for an individual to feel free or keep his sense of individuality.
According to Bruhn, what is the significance of attachment to the development of community?
A community is an ideal attatchment to a place that offers idea guidelines for relationships. It creates positive feelings and attitudes while failures can be related to depression poor health and poor social relations.
4. According to Bruhn, what is the KEY FACTOR in community?
5. What are Warren‟s five characteristics of community?
Shared Institutions and Value
Distribution Of Power
What are the four aspects of community discussed in class
Sense of Membership
Integration and fulfillment of needs
Shared emotional connection
7. What is the strongest predictor of sense of community?
Degree of Neighboing
8. What factors does Block present to support his argument that our communities have become fragmented
The gaps between sectors of our cities and neighbohoods businesses and school social organizations, churches and government all operate on their own. They are all working hard on its own purpose but the parallel effort added together does not make a community.
What are the effects of the fragmentation, according to Block
Low voter turnout
Struggle to sustain volunteerism
Large portion of population remains disengaged
What were the arguments presented in class to support the theory that community began eroding around the 1960s
Independence of woman by getting a job
Shift of Community
Civil Rights Movement ( Could Be one)
What does Bruhn mean by the concept “the new urban sociology
Shift to global perspective on capitalism and metropolis
Inclusion of social class exploitation, racism, gender.
Integration of economic, political and cultural factors
Multi-Centered regional approach to cities and suburbs.
What were the five different urban lifestyle groups identified by Herbert Gans
Cosmopolites- Professionals and white collar workers with a broad range of interest
Unmarried & Married and Childless- Sought companionship outside of their neihgborhood.
Ethnic villagers- Immigrants to the U.S.A.
Deprived- Handicapped by poverty, emotional and racial problems.
Trapped- Eveloped by the slum and were unable to leave.
According to Bruhn, what is the significance of networks to a community? Why are they important?
The diversity of the city becomes a source of strength rather than chaos.
What are the five approaches to studying communities discussed in class
Ecological- Focuses on Spatial Patterns of urban enviornment and how they influence social interaction. Focus on collective adaptations, systems of interdependence, Web of life.
Social System (holistic)
Which approach was the most fundamental and important, why?
Typological- First to follow historical transition in society. Contrasting-ideal types of communities in opposite ends of the continuum as in rural to urban continuum.
What are the three causes of gesellschaft?
Research shows that types of communites are based on more than three it is more complex.
What are the three sources of conflict in Coleman‟s conflict model?
What is „rancorous‟ conflict and what two things is it most associated with?
Rancorous conflict is actions that are dirty and underhanded. 1. Political Instability, 2.Lack of community integration. Things like Rod blagoiavich which causes mistrust among community towards gov.
What is the basic premise of social capital theory
What are the five principles of a strategy for community transformation presented by Block.
What evidence does Putnam present to argue that there has been a decline in trust and reciprocity
Since 1960's disengagement from social life
Rise of "get it in writing"
Decline in informal social netwoks
Ratio of lawyers to general population doubles
Growth of unlisted numbes and caller id
What is the distinction/difference between television for entertainment and television for information in relationship to civic engagement?
Entertainment leads to privatized leisure time while television for information leads to more gained knowledge of community.
How/why does TV reduce civic enagement?
Because More time spent watching tv leads to leisure time by your self which is time that could be spend socializing and doing other things.
What potential factors does Putnam identify as leading to lower levels of social capital in America? Which one(s) are most important to the decline?
Increased television viewing and replacement of civic minded cohorts with less civic minded ones in the age groups that are most civically involved.
What are the key components that Hancock identifies as necessary for a nation‟s „health”? What is the role of human development?
Increasing economic, social, human, ecological/natural capital. The role of human development is to raise these forms of capital and conserving them rathe than depleting them.
What are the two types of labor markets in the dual labor market
Primary and secondary.
How is human capital related to community prosperity
How did the Dudley Street Neigborhood represent the various forms of capital
Positive social Capital- Community members worked together for good of neighborhood. Bridging social capital- Worked closely with Boston and secured money for affordable housing and trash pick up.
What qualities of capital were necessary for them to achieve their objectives (ie: bridging or bonding, vertical or horizontal networks?)
Human Capital-Emphasize skills and leadership. Financial Capital- Get money from boston to do task. Political Capital- Needed mayors support to give them power and voice. Natural capital- Used abandoned land to build houses.
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