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It is peanut butter (in HaitianCreole) its powerfully nutritious and easily digested. It’s ready to eat,doesn’t grow bacteria, and doesn’t need refrigeration and families done needto use up charcoal.
- Intervention in the price mechanism. Ex: throughenvironmental taxes
-Command and control measures. Ex: Direct regulation and legislation
Why does transferring money from the wealthy to the poordrive inflation? Explain.
If the government gives money tothe poor, it will increase food demand because they now have more money tospend, therefore inflationary.
What macroeconomic policies help to promote growth of aneconomy? Explain.
- Land Reform. If small farmers ownland, they are motivated to work longer hours, invest in fences, irrigation andsuch and therefore increase productivity.
- Minimum wage laws. Can help poormake money but can also take a while to find a job, and employers could bemotivated to substitute capital such as machines for labor.
Globalization creates poverty.The world has always been poor, only in the new area of modernization, peopleescape poorness.
- Land Reform. If people don’t owntheir land, they have no incentive to make it profitable. The government gaveaway land to families to make a living off of it.
- “Nurture industry withAgriculture”: caused Taiwan’s economy to move forward because of capital,manpower, and skilled labor.
- Import Substitution: trading agproduct exports for foreign currency to import industrial machinery whichdeveloped the industrial sector.
- FreeMarket responds to money, not people
- Poorhave less impact on markets as they are pushed away from land
- Theirneeds for food do not register
- They are the loans given betweenthe 1980’s-90’s from the World Bank & International Monetary Fund. The goalwas to make developing countries efficient, competitive and involved.- Problems: Gap b/w rich and poor widened aseconomic power concentrated on the rich. Poverty and hunger escalated. Localfarmers were driven out of business due to cheap imported grain. Benefits ofinstitutions and resources transferred from public to private businesses.
- Government and Market must worktogether. Market alone leads to concentration of wealth and Government aloneleads to inefficiency, no motivation and low production. The government canhelp insure people have the means to support themselves.
- Big factories bring in money tothe area. For example, the street outside of Nike was just rice fields, butsince they came in, many businesses fill the street.
- Nikegives out loans to people that want to start small businesses.
- Free Trade: Exports have boomedin Third World countries and hunger has gotten worse. The wealthy profit fromexports and do not use profits to help the poor. Export crops displace foodcrops in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile and Thailand.
- Fair Trade: Benefits: Coffee,tea, bananas, cocoa, mangos, pineapples, crafts
- Large export farming operations set up in a place for afew years.
- Overusedchemicals, increased pest resistance, increased wages
- Pullout caused economy to slump,cheap for another multinational corporation to come in and therefore cycleleaves economy and ecology in decline.
- No Free Trade. Prohibited foodimports, direct foreign investment, land redistribution, govt subsidies andtariff protection of domestic manufacturing, incomes and purchasing power ofpoor are raised, workers become strong domestic markets and after the market isstrong the borders open again.
- Increase Income
-Increase Health Care
- Tea Estates: Maternity and childbenefits paid by Tea Estate. Retirement account is charged if you have 3 or morechildren- One Child: If you sign a contract to have onlyone child, you receive a glory certificate which includes: priority childcare,medical care & admission to schools. Also, your income increases &larger housing. If 2, must return benefits & income is reduced. If 3, youget increased sanctions.
Develop an argument to answer the question: Does the U.S. feed the world? Use statistics to back up your argument.
. From the video, what will happen to China’s populationpyramid by 2050? Explain.
Stage 5 of the demographic transition will occur. Thoughthis stage has not always been a stage, it had to be put in place because ofsituations like china where women are supposed to have <2 kids. By 2045 thetotal population is expected to peak at 1.6 billion people in China, and thenwill start to fall.
What are 4 strategies that are used to deliver foodsubsidies to people? Explain.
- Supplemental Feeding: Direct distribution to pregnantwomen & infants
-Ration Cards: Allow purchase of food at below market price
- Foodstamps: Pay market price for food, must buy food stamps
- Foodfor Work: Often work to improve agricultural infrastructure.
- Shipping costs are high
-Medical care more critical
-Depresses farm prices in developing country
-In Kerala, what little food they have is shared moreequally. Children end up healthier. Nursery school from ages 3-5 is free andthey learn things like the alphabet there. Then they continue with theireducation
- Kids in Bangladesh often times can’t go to school andlearn because they have siblings to take care of.
Which age segment of the population suffersdisproportionately from hunger and malnutrition? Explain. Is this morallyacceptable?
-Children under the age of 5, ¾ of underfed childrendie a year which about 6 million year.
-Morally acceptable? Ask yourself, wouldit be okay if our children under 5 were dying at this rate.
Women are often undernourished and uneducated andthose make raising children difficulty.
-Pregnant mothers who are undernourishedare more likely to have a low birth weight baby.
-If a baby is female the baby will get less food and care in the home.
-Increases risk of miscarriage, increased risk ofmortal complications during pregnancy.
H2O is often contaminated in the developing world
- -Mothers are undeducated and poor (food scarce)
- Afterbeing weened they do not get the right nutrients
- 1)mother removes solids from baby’s diet
- 2)Mother removes liquids with causes dehydration and death
- 3)Not enough nutrients for baby to fight disease/diarrhea continues
In the USA we spend 7% (on average) ofour income on food. What percentage of their income do the poorest families inthe developing world spend on food? What happens when food prices go up?
Developing world: up to 70% of their income whenfood prices go up there is no money left over for housing, medicine andeducation.
Explain four of the main reasons for global foodprice increases in the last several years.
1) Increased demand from emergingcountries-economic development
2) Population increase
3) Biofuels production
4) Reduce crop production (climate change)
Women make up 43% of the agriculturallabor force in developing countries, but due to their lack of education, accessto land and technology the yield on plots managed by women are usually lowerthan those managed by men.
Worldwide, who is more likely to be illiterate,women or men, and why?
About 575 million women in the world areilliterate
-Why? Only 86 countries have achievedgender parity in primary school enrolment.
-lack of resources
From the video, what are three mainelements contributing to the famine in Somalia? Explain.
. Indicate the four Millenium Development Goalsyou think are most important and why.
1)Achieve universal primary education— educating youth will helpdevelop a new generation that can innovate solutions for today’s problems. 2) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.Starvation is not an excusable way to die since food production has doublessince the 1970s. 3) Promote gender equality & empower women —education is key. 4)Reduce mortality — children should not die from preventative illnesses when wehave the technology
According to the news story, what 2Millenium Development Goals will not be achieved in Nigeria? What are someother problems facing Nigeria? Explain.
1) Food security
• 2)Poverty Reduction
Other problems include: deforestation andclimate change
Explain the Food First Myth 1 argument: Hunger isnot due to a scarcity of food.
Enough wheat, rice and other grains areproduced to provide every human being with a 3200 calorie diet.
Enough food is produced to make everyperson practically FAT What’s the problem then? People are just too poor to buyreadily available food.
In World Hunger 12 myths what are the 3 argumentsyou find most compelling? Explain.
1) Toomany people does not explain a countries hunger problem. Hunger is derived frominequities within society that deprive the people.
• 20 Green Revolution is not the answer =>Excess food still only goes to people/countries in power.
• 3) We do not need large farms. Largefarms often have idle land. Small farms typically achieve 4-5 times greateroutput
From the video, what does Frances Moore Lappestress is the root of the problem in the developing world? Explain.
There is not a lack of food there is a lack ofdemocracy.
-Healthy food should be a human right.
-Food should not be a power tool used againstpeople
What was the role of colonization on thefamines in Ireland or India? Explain who controlled the land.
IRELANDwas colonized by Britain and the foodsbesides potatoes were exported to England. Once the potato crop suffered thepeople had nothing to eat because the other crops belonged to another country. INDIA wasa colony of Britain. Indian land was converted to British plantations. Crops were exported directly toEurope. India was taxed to support British wars and the price of foodrose. A drought decreased crop production and this combination caused the GreatFamine.
How have wars exacerbated famine problems inAfrica? Explain and give 2 examples.
1) Government spends money on military which increases debt andencourages cash crops.
• 2) Government farms feed military insteadof [people (avg. citizen)
What economic segment of the populationsuffers disproportionately in natural disasters, war, and famine? Why?
Small scale farmers
-unemployed tenant farmers
-landless agriculture workers
-conquered natures (Whut? Idk…that’s whatJasmine’s notes say)
How can policy in support of a political ideologysometimes result in famine and starvation? Give two examples from the
1)Rwanda, World Bank and IMF tried to improve their finances so they gave loans,but the loans had strings tied to them which requested “structuraladjustments”. In the short term those loans benefited the wealthy and decreasedthe amount of services for the poor so the number of poverty doubles.
• 2) Ukraine Famine. This was completely caused bySoviet
I think that many of the corpses were soextremely thin because they were starved to death. This is not morallyacceptable.
From the video on Genocide in Darfur, what is thepolitical, economic, and cultural basis of that conflict? Explain.
Arabs (nomadic) vs. Africans (farmers)
-Arabs control much of the government due to help from Arab allies
-Janjaweed (special forces) and Arab governmentattack civilians in
. Oxfam argues that hunger is not due to NaturalDisaster or Overpopulations. What are the reasons they give for thesearguments?
- 1/3 of the grain grown in the world and½ of the fish caught are fed to animals in rich countries.
- The roots of hunger lie in poverty, warand the unequal distribution of resources. Not in over population.
- Low-income nations have huge amounts of debt.
2) Earlywarning / rapid response
3) Increasedaggregate food wall
What is micronutrient malnutrition? What are thethree most limiting micronutrients?
Micronutrient Malnutrition is when youhave vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Top 3 most limiting micronutrients:
1. VitaminA: -Blindness –reduces body’s resistance to disease
2. Iron- principle cause ofanemia
3. Iodine-jeopardizes children’s mental health and often their lives.
Protein energy malnutrition is the most importanttype of malnutrition:
it’s the lack of enough calories and protein.
Top 2 most extreme forms:
1. Kwashiokor – extreme protein deficiency
2. Marasmus – extreme calorie deficiency
Explain the difference in the causes and symptomsof kwashiorkor and marasmus
- Extreme protein deficiency
- Bloating of the stomach due to edema
- Antibodies degraded to provide protein to body.
-Extreme calorie deficiency
-Protein used for energy
-Brain development impaired
Example: Must eat both cereal (rice) andbeans together to get balanced amino acids.
What are the causes of globalovernutrition, and how can overnutrition and undernutrition coexist in the samecountry? Explain.
Industrial food => High in calories, but lowin nutrients
- Recommended Daily Allowance
- Good target for individuals
- EstimatedAverage Requirement
- Alwayslower than RDA
- Goodtarget for average intake of a group of people.
Is hunger and malnutrition morally acceptable?Why or why not?
NO. There are other options. There’s enough foodbut where does it
go. If this happened to your child would you think that they deserve it?
In the video on malnutrition and gender equality,why do the twins have such different weights? Explain.
Lack of abundant and nutritious sourcesof food and gender inequality. The male twin is preferred over the female twin.
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