Forensic Criminology Note Cards Measuring Crime Uniformed Crime Report (UCR) Created in 1930, annual document that coconuts for eight types of crimes. Eight Index Crimes (Part I) Murder and non-negligent Manslaughter, Forcible Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault, Burglary, Larceny-Theft, Motor Vehicle Theft, and Arson. Non-Index Crimes (Part II) Other Assaults (Simple), Forgery and Counterfeiting, Fraud, Embezzlement, Stolen Property, Offense against the Family and Children, Sex Offenses, Gambling, and Vandalism. UCR Contains Group A crimes( 46 more serious charges) Group B crimes ( 11 less serious charges) Hate crimes It required data collection of violent attacks, intimidation, arson or property damage that are directed at a person or group of persons because of race, religion, sexual orientation, or ethnicity Terrorism Juvenile Delinquency Risk Factors Peer association ( those who associate or befriend delinquents, are more likely to commit offenses themselves) Family Background (relationship between single parent homes and delinquency) Parental Disciplinary Practices ( lack of supervision is strong predictor of serious violent delinquency) Gender and delinquency (boys far outweigh girls in juvenile offending) Life Course Persistent Offenders vs. Adolescent Limited Offender LCP: generally commit a wide assortment of aggressive and violent crimes over their lifetime. AL: Those who begin offending during early adolescents and stop offending somewhere around their eighteenth birthday (ageing out of offending) Prevention and Treatment of Juvenile Offending Primary prevention programs: is designed to prevent behaviors before they emerge or before a pattern of behavior occurs. Secondary prevention program: designed for children who show some early signs of behaviors but have not been adjudicated delinquent. Tertiary prevention program: intervention strategy designed to reduce or eliminate antisocial behavior that is fully developed in individuals Origins of Criminal Behavior: Biological Factors Cesare Lombroso Believed in ?born criminal.? Predisposed to act antisocially Categories of criminal behavior:** Habitual or Professional Criminals: engaged in crime as a trade or occupation Judicial Criminal: those who violated the law because of a lack of prudence or care Criminals of Passion: are those that violate the law because of their ?intense love, or honor, noble ambition, or patriotism? Criminaloids: the weak natured and highly susceptible to good and bad examples. Minor criminal Offenders Nature and nurture. Nurture and interaction effect* Born Criminals: were dictated by strong biological predispositions to crime. More serious Criminals or Felons Physique and Crime Kretschmer Believed in relationship between body type and criminal behavior Somatotyping: Sheldon?s theory of connecting body type to criminal behavior Endomorphic: Fat and Soft Ectomorphic: Thin and Fragile Mesomorphic: Muscular and Hard According to Sheldon, Mesomorphy was correlated with adult arrests for all crimes especially violent crimes. Eysenck?s Theory of Personality and Crime Eysenck Believed that criminal behavior was a result of interaction between environmental conditions and the nervous system. Extrovert: the extreme positive end of the spectrum (16%) More socially engaging Require overstimulation for arousal Introvert: the extreme negative end of the spectrum (16%) Ambiversion: the middle ground of the extraversion spectrum (68%) Interaction with nervous system Limbic System includes: hippocampus, amygdala, cingulun, and hypothalamus. Crime and Conditionability Pavlovian Classical Conditioning: The process of learning to respond to a formally neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that already elicits a response Operant Conditioning: A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or diminished by its consequences. Negative reinforcement- take away quiz because we all came to class Punishment ? we were unprepared in class, got a pop quiz Twin Studies Have been used to attempt to establish a link between criminology and genetics Concordance (the degree to which related pairs of subjects both show a certain trait) of behavior is what has been researched in twins. The high percentage of concordance rates among most twin studies suggests that heredity might play a significant role in criminality. Schulsinger found a link between psychopathic characteristics and adoptees Ultimately, people may be born with biological predispositions to behaviors that runs counter to social values and norms, and that environmental factors may either inhibit or stimulate it. EXAM REVIEW 60 question, multiple choice and true false. Questions in order of chapters. Define criminal behavior Intentional behavior that violates a criminal code. Define psychological criminology The branch of criminology that examines the individual behavior and especially the mental processes involved in criminal behavior Define Sociological criminology The branch of criminology that examines the demographic and group variables related to crime Understand how we measure crime Know what part 1 and part 2 crimes are Developmental approach to studying crime Definition of self fulfilling prophecy , just world hypothesis Characteristics of good scientific theory Humanistic perspective of understanding crime Social control theory, strain theory, social learning theory, deterrence Social control theory: a theory proposed by Travis Hirschi that contends that crime and delinquency occur when an individuals ties to the conventional order or normative standards are weak or largely nonexistent Strain Theory: a prominent sociological explanation for crime based on Robert Merton?s theory that crime and delinquency occur when there is perceived discrepancy between the materialistic values and goals cherished and held in high esteem by a society and the availability of the legitimate means for reaching goals. Social Learning Theory: a theory of human behavior based on learning from watching others in the social environment. Deterrence: one of the four goals or purposes of punishment. Refers to the use of punishment to dissuade individuals from committing crime in the future. General Deterrence: refers to the overall symbolic impact punishment has on the population as a whole. Specific Deterrence: based on the actual experience of punishment, which presumably will deter the punished individual from engaging in future transgressions Criminal profiling Freud and criminal behavior General definition of risk factor and protective factor Explanation of these Family, social economic status, peers, gender. Work of Goldstein (aggressive tendencies) Definition of conduct disorder Research on parenting styles Authoritative, etc? Bio-psychologist definition Work of Raine 1997, Danish newborns. What she found in that. Fraternal and identical twins Concordance rate definition Limbic system and components Autonomic nervous system Eysenck theory on explaining crime What neurological mechanism explains introversion, extroversion engagement. What personality dimension associated most with crime Percentages (ambiovert in middle) Difference between temperament and personality Definition of Pavlovian condition, and operant conditioning
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