Struggles Towards Freedom An Interactive Investigation for Wisconsin 4th Graders Introduction This investigation is designed to acquaint fourth graders with some Wisconsin people, issues, and events significant in the struggle for freedom from slavery. Navigating the Presentation Clicking the mouse will take you to the next slide. Clicking on underlined links will connect you to web sites. Close the sites after viewing to continue. Slavery During the Fur Trade Era When the French and British were in control of the area that is now Wisconsin, some of the first non-Indian people were Blacks brought to Wisconsin as slaves. How Do We Know? Augustin Grignon How do we know about these people? Read the introduction to the article, “Augustin Grignon’s Recollections” on the Wisconsin Historical Society site. Grignon tells us about several slaves in Wisconsin during the Fur Trade Era. Open “Recollections of Augustin Grignon” and read page 258 to find out what life was like for the slave of Baptist Brunet. Where Did the Slaves Come From? Some slaves in the New World were Native American peoples. Most were ripped from their homes in Africa, and transported to American in crowded, diseased ships. Click on the map to see routes used to bring slaves to the New World. Also visit this site: The Slave Trade There is much to learn about slavery. Visit some of the links to learn more. Slave ship pictures Slave Market Slave Labor Rebellion More About Slave Life Northwest Territory and the Northwest Ordinance In 1787, the area that is now Wisconsin was part of what was known as the Northwest Territory. Visit the above link. Name the 5 state that were once the Northwest Territory. The laws that governed the territory was know as the Northwest Ordinance. Visit the above link. Find and read Article 6 What does Article 6 tell us about slavery in the Northwest Territory? Slavery in Other States Slavery was permitted and practiced in many other states and territories. Slavery was caused a lot of conflict between free states and slave states. Wanting to be Free There were several ways slaves could find freedom. Visit and explore the “Roads to Freedom” to learn about six ways slaves could become Freeman. I didn't know I was a slave until I found out I couldn't do the things I wanted. Frederick Douglas The Underground Railroad “Can liberty and slavery long dwell together? Which side shall we be on? Surely we shall be for liberty.” Dr. Edward Galusha Dyer, Burlington, Wisconsin: an abolitionist Routes of the Railroad Many people escaped slavery with the help of people who were against slavery. These people were called abolitionist. The journey they took was called the Underground Railroad. Traveling the Underground Railroad Visit The Underground Railroad in Wisconsin to read about some of the runaway slaves and their experiences on the Underground Railroad. Learn about some of the Secret Codes and Communications along the way Also go on a Virtual Journey on the Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad Came to Wisconsin There are many stories of fugitive slaves coming to the Underground Railroad in Wisconsin. Visit Wisconsin and click on a city to learn more. The Milton House One of the most well known Underground Railway Stations was The Milton House in Milton, Wisconsin Visit the Milton House web site to learn more. The Fugitive Slave Law was a law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850. This law made it tougher on slaves who ran away and demanded stricter punishment for those helping slaves run away. Many people and states thought this law was unconstitutional. They helped the slaves anyway. Wisconsin was one of those states Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 The Rescue of Joshua Glover 1854 Joshua Glover was a fugitive slave who came to Wisconsin. Read, Rescue of Joshua Glover, a Runaway Slave The Wisconsin Supreme Court ruled that The Fugitive Slave Law was unconstitutional Unfortunately, the US Supreme Court reversed the decision in 1855. Glover found freedom in Canada thanks to Wisconsin abolitionists. Dred Scott’s Ten Year Fight for Freedom Many slaves who were brought to free states by their slave owners went to court to get their freedom. One of these slaves was Dred Scott. This case lead to a very important decision about slavery. Read about Dred Scott and the outcome of his case. Dred Scott The conflict between the slave states and the free state continued. The slave state ceded, or left the Union, to form The Confederacy This lead to the Civil War. While the war began as a means to keep the Union together, freedom of slaves became a goal of the war. Visit this link to learn what other elementary students have learned about The American Civil War. Fighting for Freedom Wisconsin soldiers fought to keep the Union together. Some Black soldiers from Wisconsin fought with Company F, 29th Regiment. THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN CIVIL WAR MEMORIAL THE SPIRIT OF FREEDOM The Emancipation Proclamation On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. This proclamation declared freedom for slaves in Confederate states. President Lincoln and his Cabinet review the Emancipation Proclamation. (Illustration: North Wind Picture Archives) Freedom is Official, Yet, the Struggle Continues Slaves didn’t become free until after the war. Even then, it wasn’t until Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, on December 6, 1865, that all slaves in the United States were legally free. This was the beginning of freedom. However, the struggle for equality continued even onto today. Painting of a Union soldier reading Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation to a slave family. The Grainger Collection.