What are Ethics ? Same as morals? Implies a written document Addresses behaviors not addressed morally Draws upon influences outside of moral principle 1. Science 2. Law EXISTING CODE OF ETHICS California Association of Criminalists (1957) Defined a profession Serves as model for a specific code Relevancy? American Academy of Forensic Science Created to unite a group of professionals More general to allow for flexibility to reflect changing obligations of the profession SCENARIO You work in the toxicology section of the laboratory. You have issued a report that says the defendant had 0.20 BAC. Before court, you noticed that your report was incorrect. The Defendant s BAC was really 0.18. WHAT DO YOU DO? Importance of the Code of Ethics Implies a relationship between the scientist and the consumer Who are the consumers? Issues with frequent consumers? Obligations to the consumer: 1. Objectivity 2. Technical Competence 3. Reliable Results 4. Comprehensive Review of relevant issues CREDIBILITY VS COMPETENCY Does competency always mean correct? Does incompetency mean unethical? How is competence measured? What does it mean to be credible? Who measures credibility? OBLIGATIONS OF AN EXPERT WITNESS Hearsay Issue Pool of experts Responsibility of lawyer Responsibility of jury Responsibility of the expert LEGAL VS SCIENTIFIC PRACTICES Cultural differences Different short term goals and therefore different mechanisms 1. Time 2. Limited Evidence 3. Manner Resolution of the differences??
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