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To sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation’s firsts and grasslands. Achieve quality land management through Sustainable multiple-use management concept to meet the diverse needs of people.
conservation, protection, management, use and enjoyment of the state’s natural resources for current and future generations
working with others to conserve, protect and enhance fish, wildlife, and plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the american people.
the first national park was yellowstone 1872 and the army was responsible for managing it.
-managing large predators) how to manage large invertebrates like grizzly bears and bison from interacting with people. Wolves as well because ranchers living around the park didn’t want their livestock eaten by wolves.
-(political boundaries vs. spatial ecology of animals vs. adjacent land use) (refuge effect) boundaries have been an issue as well, animals don’t understand boundaries and they can start to move out of the park and into where people live. refuge effect also, in smoky mountains they found that bears from surrounding areas where hunting is allowed came into park for protection. when carrying capacity is exceeded food starts to run out. there was an issue where a starving bear killed hiker for food.
-(control of invasive species) National Park service has a daily aggressive program. There’s also the balsam woolly adelgid in Smokey Mountians which kills millions of Frasier firs
-Adjacent land development/managemtn(people with homes next to park building houses and what not)
-Managing the visitor experience, over 200 million people visit yellowstone per year, how do you manage all of those people?
How is Tsavo National Park similar to Yellowstone National Park? How is it different?
It is similar to yellowstone because it is managed in a hands off bioreserve approach as well. tsavo allows no hunting just like yellowstone. it has tourism, it deals with large predators, it deals with local people(stakeholders) and it also deals with land use and habitat management. It is different in the sense that people around the park make much of their money off of tourism and also the people around the park are extremely poor. it is also different because the park is split up into an east and west part and a town sits right in the middle.
What are some of the issues/ challenges facing Tsavo National Park?
-some issues/challenges facing tsavo are its large size makes it tough to enforce regulations, managing tourists because they often want to get as close to the animals as possible, and also managing the large elephants spatial ecology that move from the west side of the park into the east side during the dry season for water. they eat crops, kill people, and destroy homes. Also managing/collaborations with local people and make them understand why elephants do what they do and help them out with their damaged crops and homes.
What are some of the issues/ challenges facing Chitwan National Park?
some issues are buffer zone management, the buffer zone is managed by local people for forest products, tourism, and agriculture. human-wildlife conflicts are also an issue.
What is community-based management?
a community is responsible managing its own natural resources instead of a head government. when government is making a national park they work with the locals that live in, or around, where the national park is going to be located. they work with local people in order to create park boundaries, what behaviors they can do in the park, try to find ways locals can govern the park, and try to put locals in jobs pertaining to park. it’s an approach where they try to get local people as involved with the park process as possible.
Relative to the USDA Forest Service, what is multiple use and why is it important?
multiple use is something that the USDA is legally mandated to do. it means they have to manage national forests for recreation, forest production, wildlife, range, and water.(USDA has to manage national forests for recreation, timber, wilderness, minerals, water, grazing, fish, and wildlife.)
What is the Multiple Use-Sustained Yield Act – 1960 was enacted. What was it?
the multiple use-sustained yield act was a federal law passed by the US. It authorizes the secretary of agriculture to develop and administer the renewable resources of timber, range, water, wildlife, and recreation on the national forests for multiple use and sustained yield of the products and services.
What is biodiversity or biological diversity?
biological diversity is a variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem
What is NEPA?
NEPA is the National Environmental Policy Act. it requires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into their decision making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions.NEPA is a bigg piece of legislation that helps the forest service and citizens make sure the forest service is going to manage for multiple use
What is distinct about a Wilderness Area?
a large wilderness area is completely free of any man made objects. roads, homes, buildings. those things aren;t allowed. no motorized or mechanized equipment allowed. fishing, hunting, and grazing is allowed with permits.
Know roughly how much land, inland lakes and shoreline the MDNR is responsible for managing
the DNR is responsible for managing 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of freshwater shoreline, and 4.5 million acres of state land.
What are the four parts of the MDNR’s Ecosystem-based approach to management?
the four parts are the DNR recognizes all species have values
done at local, regional. and global scales
use short and long-term views
combines biological, social, and economic values
What are some of the challenges the MDNR faces in managing MI’s public lands?
some challenges they face are understanding how to prevent Bovine TB from spreading because of feeding and baiting. another is how we manage our forests, a lot of people in Michigan don’t like fire management. some people would rather see living trees instead of seeing them harvested. we also have to figure out how to manage so many unique habitats in Michigan. wolves as well, some people are for wolf hunting while others are against it.
Know that the National Wildlife Refuge system is part of the USFWS which is part of the Department of Interior.
Why do Refuges tend to be associated with bodies of water and rivers?
Refuges tend to be located along bodies of water and rivers because they were initially set up for water fowl when they migrate. they were set up along migratory routes which tend to be along rivers.
What are the Big 6 public uses, the Refuges promote?
environmental education, interpretation, wildlife observation, fishing, hunting, and photography
Why is toxicology arguably the oldest scientific discipline?
this is because when we were hunters and gatherers we had to decide what was safe to eat, people eat plant and die we realized if you don’t want to die then don’t eat that plant. we had to figure out what was safe to eat and what wasn’t.
What are the three origins of chemicals Dr. Murphy discussed?
natural(food, metals, minerals)
biological(toxins from bacteria)
synthetic(created through chemical processes)
Why is dose the key concept in toxicology? How can things that are good for us (e.g., water) be toxic? What happened in the “Hold your wee for a Wii” contest?
dose is the key concept in toxicology because all things are poisonous, on the dose makes it non-poisonous. a high enough dose of anything can kill you. Things that are good for us are toxic through high doses. anything can be toxic. in the hold your wii for a wii contest, a california women competed in a radio contest to see how much she could drink without going to the bathroom in order to win a wii. she died form water intoxication.
What is a sublethal effect?
it is when toxins don’t kill an organism, but instead changes physiological processes, growth, reproduction, behavior, development, etc. A common themes is sublethal effects have adverse effect on an individual’s fitness.
When it comes to toxicology, what’s wrong with the statement “The solution to pollution is dilution”?
this refers to dumping chemicals and toxins into water, or just diluting them somehow in order to make them less toxic. The issue is they don’t break down and over time they biomagnify. they make their way into the food chain and as animals eat other animals with small amounts of toxins in them, over time the main consumer will have very high levels of toxins.
What is biomagnification?
bio-magnification is the sequence of processes in an ecosystem by which higher concentrations of a particular chemical are reached in organisms higher up the food chain, general through a series of prey-predator relationships.
What is the endocrine system?What are the functions of the endocrine system?
the endocrine system is a network of glands that release many different hormones, sometimes in very tiny amounts. the functions of it are to maintain internal homeostasis, regulate cell growth, organize development, coordinate reproduction, and facilitate response to external stimuli.
What are the common steroids Dr. Murphy discussed?
he common steroids are estrogens(any family of steroid hormones that regulate and sustain female sexual development and reproductive function.
androgen: a class of male sex hormones related to the steroid adrostane and produce in the adrenal cortex and testes.
What are EDCs ?
Endocrine disruptive chemicals. they are an exogenous chemical substance or mixture that alter the structure or functions of the endocrine system and causes adverse effects at the level of the organism, its progeny, populations or subpopulations of organisms and so on.
What are the two general ways that EDCs work?
directly(interfere with hormone actions on target cells) and indirectly. directly deals with how a toxicant mimics hormone response or where it blocks hormone response.
What are the three types of EDCs Dr. Murphy listed?
natural, stressors, and synthetic
Where are EDCs found?
ECDs are found naturally in plants, they can be found anthropogeniccally(pesticides, plastics, drugs, cosmetics, sewage)
Know some examples of EDCs -- What is it and what does it do and to whom (or what)?
one example of EDC is DDT. is is estrogenic, it affected reproduction system of birds, it disrupted the eagle’s endocrine system, interfering with calcium metabolism and produce weak egg shells. it also feminized frogs and it was a DDT metabolite.
Another ECD is Ethynylestradiol(birth control) it is estrogenic, it created yolk protein in male fish, it decreased fertility of male fish, and decreased egg survival.
another ECD is Methymercury. it mimics amino acid. it is readily transferred throughout the body and is deposited in developing fetus. it results in a decrease in IQ, impaired memory, language, and attention deficits. It also creates sensory deficits and impaired motor coordination.Ask about how cause and effect, and correlation apply to these).
Dr. Murphy discussed two examples at length. Each of these examples dealt with a study trying to determine if toxics in the environment resulted in unwanted changes in populations. Generally be able to describe each example. Dr. Murphy also talked about correlations and establishing cause and effect. Relative to these two examples, be able to discuss how the ideas of correlation and cause and effect apply.
One of the studies was Lake Apopka in 1980 in Florida. What happened was a pesticide spill into the lake occurred when a waste pond containing high levels of DDT overflowed into lake. shortly after 90% of the alligators disappeared. high levels of of DDT were found in the blood of the alligators. they found that overtime the alligators’ penises were becoming smaller meaning that their circulating sex steroids were reduced.
they then looked at eggs in Lake Apopka compared to other surrounding Lakes and found that survival rate was much lower. They also painted turtle eggs with DDT and found that it was feminizing offspring. they were able to determine that DDT was the cause.
Experimental Lakes in Canada:
they found an entire fish population in a lake collapsed after DDE they used experimental lakes in Canada to do experiments on this. they went out in boats in lakes where fathead minnows lived and dumped realistic amounts of DDE into the lakes. in one lake they didn’t add any chemicals and in another they did. they found that there were a much higher amount of yolk protein in males in the lake they dumped the chemicals in. males started to produce eggs and there was a fish population collapse in this lake.
What is the Boone and Crockett Club?
it is a club limited to a hundred individuals. they are wealthy and politically connected. they have access to government and resources. when they want to see things change they can make it happen. it was started 125 years ago by roosevelt with the intent of restoring big game in north america. they heavily influence wildlife policy.
On Dr. Porter’s first slide (the one with his picture) he shows three different landscapes. Why did he say that the one in the middle was “the most productive, the one where all the action is”?:
He said this because this slide shows Michigan. We have the best wildlife populations in the Great Lakes Basin. We have the greatest wildlife any place in the eastern US.
Dr. Porter had you do a class exercise associated with two questions: Should the wolf remain on the Endangered Species List?You should be able to discuss reasons for (Pro) or against (Con) each question.
Cons: the DNR had met their goals of reestablishing the wolf population Pro: it would ensure that wolves wouldn’t become extirpated again
Should we allow regulated harvest of wolves?: Pro: help maintain stable deer populations and stable and health wolf populations Con: they could become extirpated Keep in mind that these are claims and you need science to back these things up. Pro: keep wolf numbers at a healthy population. when numbers get too high, they’ll go after unnatural food sources. all of these things are debateable and we need scientific evidence to back them up.
Why were wolves listed as an endangered species in Michigan?:
because we had extirpated them previously to their reintroductions.
What is the difference between extirpated and extinct?
extirpated is a when a population of a species is no longer existent in a small range. it’s a local extinction. Extinction is when an entire range of animals becomes non-existent. they were federally endangered because the only populations that persisted into the 20th century were in northern Minneosta. there were no longer wolves anywhere else. they had population sizes so small in the US that there was risk that those populations would be gone completely, this is what gets organisms endangered species status.
How did wolves get back into Michigan?
in the 1960s wolves were in Minnesota and were expanding farther down. Wolves started to move and by the 1980s we had wolves repopulate the western UP. This was because we got really good at enforcing the endangered species act. we established serious fines.
What was required (to happen) to delist wolves from the Endangered Species List?:
there had to be a winter population greater than or equal to 200 wolves in 5 consecutive years.
What are the three ways Dr. Porter said conflicts occur with wolves in the UP of MI?
human safety, livestock depredation, pet depredation.
What were some examples of nonlethal ways to deal with wolf conflicts?
get a dog to protect livestock, get a llama, donkeys, electric fencing, and red tape or flags.
What are the three lethal ways Dr. Porter listed for resolving wolf conflicts?
permits to landowners to shoot wolves, targeted removal by agency staff, hunting.
Know the primary issues related to the current political efforts being taken regarding a wolf hunt in Michigan
anuary 2012 wolves were taken off of the endangered species list. By december of 2012 Michigan Legislature put them on the game species list. the state has jurisdiction over the wolves and the legislature says they are a hunt able game species. The NRC and DNR are responsible for developing a hunting season. There were two rationals for hunting, one was recreational and one was conflict resolution. the focus was conflict resolution. the DNR wanted to resolve conflict. They divided UP into three hunting zones and had 43 tags to be filled, only 23 were filled out of 650 wolves.
-The place where hunting took place was in the UP and it needed to be in an area with some conflict, needs to be an area where nonlethal approaches had not worked, and it needed to be a place where the harvest did not threaten the long term viability of the wolves.
Was it a recreational hunt or a conflict resolution hunt?
Why was a hunt needed? (What were the management criteria?)
To resolve conflict in areas in the UP where non lethal methods were not effective. Also so the harvest would not threaten long term viability of the wolf population in UP.
Dr. Porter mentioned on very significant reason the State of Michigan did not want wolves
relisted as Endangered. What was it?
when wolves are put back on endangered species list they become federal jurisdiction and Michigan no longer has any control over managing them.
How many wolves were harvested?
What were the four political actions taken to allow (2) and stop (2) hunting of wolves in MI?
On organization called keep wolves protected funded by the US Humane Society. It went out and collected signatures to put a referendum on the ballot and next november the referendum is there. This referendum says Legislature shouldn’t be able to declare any animals as game species. If enough people vote yes, the Legislature no longer has authority to designate game species.
The legislature then passed a law saying the NRC is designated to allow what animals are defined as gam species. IF this passes, then NRC now has authority and the keep wolves protected fund referendum is moot.
the keep wolves protected fund is now acquiring signatures for a referendum that will make it so the NRC does not have the right to designate game species in the state.
the citizens for professional wildlife management created a citizen initiated bill that won’t be on referendum. it isn’t something you can vote for but it is something you can sign a petition for. If enough people sign a petition, the petition demands that the legislature act on a bill that would designate hunt able species. The legislature can vote yes or no. If you add to this bill a financial component authorizing expenditure of money, then there can’t be a referendum for the bill. They gave $1 million dollars to fight invasive species.
What is bovine TB? Can humans catch it?
it is a disease where deer have yellow nodules all over their organs. humans can catch it and it originated in cattle. it attacks lungs.
Be able to describe the history of bovine TB in MI
it originated in cattle and was passed on to deer. it was first identified in cattle. this same strain of TB can infect pretty much any mammal. It used to be the most common form of TB found in humans in the entire US. More people in US had bovine TB than human TB. People used to get Bovine TB from milk, the we started pasteurizing milk. there has been one case of TB in humans in Michigan from deer.
-in 1975 a deer was found positive for Bovine TB after a hunter shot it. Nobody thought too much of it. The hunter took the deer to DNR, the DNR took it to a vet, and the vet said that’s TB. It was only a few years before that in the 70s that Michigan completely got rid of TB in all cattle. It wasn’t eradicated until early 70s. Until this problem in Michigan the only state that had TB was Texas. it was a strip that ran along the border of Mexico. it was because a huge number of dairy operations there. Other than this there wasn’t bovine TB.
-In 1994 a hunter in the same spot brought another TB deer into the DNR. The DNR then sent it to a place in Iowa which is a federal lab that tests for disease. They said it was Bovine TB.
-They then started a program to look at deer. They did a little bit more testing and within two years we had gnu from having one TB positve deer to 76. Some coyotes and a private deer herd were also TB positive.
-In 1995 there was a large meeting in europe about TB, in the book published after meeting it said it wasn’t possible for TB to be maintained in a wild herd.
-We kept testing for TB, in 1998 the game changed. In 1998 in addition to picking it up in bear and raccoons three TB positive cattle herds came into existence.
-All of a sudden TB in cattle in US is not limited to west texas and it was in a different place. Cattle is raised as a source of food. Disease control for cattle is
-in 1998 as well there was a deer that was tested positive off on the edge of the TB range in Michigan. Prior to that everything was pretty contained into one area.
Why are we (and the USDA in particular) concerned about bovine TB in deer in MI?
Disease control for cattle is under federal jurisdiction and we also rely on cattle for beef.
Why was the outbreak of bTB in the northeastern Lower Peninsula such a big deal? Think about impacts to the community.
What happens if bTB is found in a dairy or beef cattle herd?:
The entire herd is killed. If a beef herd you kill every animal in herd no matter what. In a dairy herd they don’t need to kill every animal because the milk is going to be pasteurized. They kill the positive animals. But in Michigan you aren’t allowed to sell your milk if your herd is TB positive. the state has a fund that’ll pay you back for the cattle they kill. But you can’t start raising cattle on that property right away. Not sure if this’ll matter but they take them to MSU campus, do necropsy(autopsy) and then burn them in the incinerator. The reason you can’t raise cattle right away is because we don’t know how it gets in cattle herds. You may have to leave without cattle for a year. Nowadays they test animals and any animal that tests positive to get killed. it is now possible to maintain part of your herd.
How is bovine TB spread?
Through the air by sneezing or coughing, consumption of contaminated feed, requires close contact with an infected individual or contaminated area, enhanced by crowding and stress.
What is the difference between bait and feed?
bait is used during hunting season while feed is used during the off season for hunting. is used for any reason other than hunting. Both are a substance composed of grain, mineral ,salt, fruit, vegetables, or anything that attracts deer.
How can baiting and feeding impact the spread of bovine TB among white-tailed deer?
It forces deer to feed in groups where the deer are extremely close in together. The above question would explain how that transfer of Tb occurs in those feed ing piles. it can increaSe the spread and incidence of TB. It brings deer into close contact. it creates crowding and stress. disease easily transferrable.
What are the two primary strategies the state of MI is taking to control bTB in white-tailed deer?
We eliminate baiting and feeding and we reduce deer densities.
How does Proposal G and the NRC relate to the two major strategies for controlling bTB? Who had authority? Where there issues associated with Proposal G?
Proposal G restricts the authority of the NRC to the taking of game in the state. They had absolutely no legal mechanism to deal with feeding because feeding wasn’t during the hunting season. Feeding wasn’t involved with the taking of game but baiting is. We had a state agency that was supposed to be looking out for the well being of deer not having the legal authority to do anything about feeding because it isn’t involved with the taking of game. The department of agriculture stepped in and banned winter feeding in northeast part of the state. They were sued and by the time it took the case to go through the courts, the legislature gave the NRC authority to deal with winter feeding.
How do we test for bTB in deer?
All dairy and beef cattle when taken to slaughter are tested for TB. There is an inspection for TB. For deer they do it by post mortum inspection. Depending on where in the state the DNR will collect deer heads from hunters for testing. They ship it to south part of MSU campus. They dissect out lymph nodes and they look at them to see if they look odd. The first place TB shows up is in lymph nodes. You can only tell with deer post mortem. If lymph nodes look odd they are sent to federal lab in Iowa.
What is the purpose of HD in FW Management?
it gives us insights as to how to manage people
What kinds of sub‐disciplines are included in the human dimensions of Fish and Wildlife?
What is a stakeholder?
any person or group who will be affected by, or will affect, wildlife or wildlife management.
What was the point behind the salmon, bear and squirrel question/exercise?
it showed us that determining how many individuals we should harvest is a very complicated process. many things go into it. it’s a complicated process for managers. numbers aren’t the driving force behind management. it has to do with impacts. the nature of what how we should determine how many animals we should harvest can change. it shows us what the complexities are for people who have to manage fisheries and wildlife populations.
What are impacts?
Impacts are a subset of effects, arising from recognized events or interactions pertaining to wildlife, and evaluated by stakeholders as sufficiently important to warrant management attention.
What is the pathway that gets us from an event to an impact?
you have an event, and you then have to recognize that event is taking place. you then determine if the effects of that recognized event are important or non-important. once recognized it is determined what the effect would be, if its of low importance or high importance.
What are the 6 types of impacts?
psychological, sociological, economical, ecological, cultural, and physiological.
Anatomically and physiologically, why can emotions “override” reasoned thought? Look at the brain picture and scary bear picture:
what’s closest to your brain stem is going to win the race of hormones, or chemical signals. The frontal cortex of your brain is where cognition takes place and the amygdala that is closest to the brain stem is where emotions are fired off. when you see a bear and are able to recognize it you make an inerpretation but by that time your amydala is already firing off emotions. this is what creates the flight or fight , your emotions are already firing and you act according to those emotions instead of cognition. your heart rate increases, and you instantly start trying to figure out how you’re going to escape or what your strategy is. that’s why people do things that don;t make sense in hindsight. they act according to emotions instead of cognition.
Dr. Riley showed a couple of videos. What does right and wrong or good and bad have to do with how we viewed the videos? What was the take home message from the videos?
the take away message was how our values influence what we think when we watch the videos. our values determine what we think is right or wrong, good or bad. our values and beliefs determine how we feel about things. our attitudes are set on a set of beliefs that don’t change from context to context. it also showed cognition versus emotion. our emotions trumped over cognition meaning we felt emotions before we fully understood all of the circumstances of the videos. also, one of those videos isn’t more natural than another just because one occurs in a national park between animals. part of human dimensions is figuring out if humans are separate from nature or one with it.
Differentiate between values and behaviors. How they are connected to one another?
Values are a person’s principles or standards of behavior. One’s judgement of what is important. Behaviors are the way in which one conducts oneself. Values act as the basis for one’s behaviors. What your values are determine how you act. Although values aren’t subject to change, behaviors are. values are the basis for our beliefs, which make up our attitudes. our behavior is often a result of our attitudes. attitudes are much easier to change than values meaning behavior is easily changed. our values are mostly locked in and concrete. values are few in numbers and hard to change. attitudes and behaviors are numerous and easier to change. they are a result of values
What is BCC?
the maximum number of organisms of a particular species that can be supported indefinitely in a given environment.
What is WAC?
the upper limits of tolerance for impacts derived from fish/wildlife. at a certain population size humans find it acceptable. different groups of people have different wildlife acceptance capacity. it deals with the frequency and quality of interactions. it deals more with the impact of the population rather than the animals themselves. it is relative. when attitudes change acceptance capacity can change.
What is social carrying capacity?
social carry capacity is that population level that creates the current level of impacts that is acceptable to both those observers and homeowners. this is where the social carrying capacity is equivalent to the biological carrying capacity, except that it’s more acceptable. it is the level of impacts created by a population that intersect the acceptance capacity for all of the stakeholders. social carrying capacity is the intersection where all stakeholders find population acceptable. it is where the level of impact is acceptable to all.
What factors affect BCC and WAC?
Factors that affect BCC:
-What affects populations?
-What affects attitudes towards the species or interactions?:
-Impacts: the important effects
-Affecting human values
What is a primary challenge for fish and wildlife professionals?
creating bridges between our science and the public
What are outreach skills?
technical knowledge, educational design, facilitation skills, networking and communication skills, team skills, imagination, enthusiasm, and positive attitude. requires a blend of technical and communication skills.
What is outreach?
utreach is used to establish mutual understanding, promote involvement, and influence attitudes and actions with the goal of improving joint stewardship of our natural resources
What is the difference between outreach and communication?
communication is the development and delivery of a compelling message to a specific audience while outreach is the means by which you reach and deliver your message to those critical audiences. it often includes research, planning, interaction, and evaluation.
What are the 5 steps of the continuum of participation:
inform, consult, involve, collaborate, and empower.
What questions are used to assess communication needs?
What groups are involved in the issues? for each audience, what actions are desired? what messages must be sent?what tools/activities will most efficiently result in the desired outcome? how well do you know if the method worked
What are the parts of a basic outreach strategy?
planning, implementation, evaluation
What is the difference between a goal and an objective?
goals are lon-range statements describing desired future condition; describe what you want to achieve as a result of a successful program(ultimate ideal. An objective serves as a benchmark for measuring program’s impact on audience’s awareness, knowledge, attitudes, skills, or behaviors.
What does SMART stand for?
specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, time-sensitive. it pertains to objectives.
What do we know about audiences & what should you know about your audience?:
what we know about audiences is there’s no such things as the genera; public, and we must target specific groups with specific programs and messages and materials are not one-size hits all. each audience also has different needs. What you should know about your audience is demographics, what their interests are, their wants/needs/motivation, where they get their information, and what words/images appeal to them.
What are some ways to create an effective message?
use what you know about your audience, make them aware of what’s in it for them, testimonials, call to action(what do you want them to do?), compelling graphics
What are channels/tools?
they are the way in which you can spread your message, you can use print materials, visual media, electronic media, and so on.
Why is evaluation important?Know some examples of evaluation methods:
evaluation lets you determine how well your message was received by your audience. some examples are interviews, focus group, questionnaire/surveys. tests, case studies, and so on.
Know the main parts of the Fisheries Division Mission statement
Their mission statement is to protect and enhance Michigan’s aquatic life for the benefit of current and future generations.
What is interesting about employees vs. acres of freshwater for MDNR?
Michigan has 160,000 acres of water for each employee. Out of 42 states, we are 42nd for having the most acres of water per employee. we have the least amount of employees per acre of water.
What are the 3 things Fisheries Division is legally responsible for?
Sport Fishing, Commercial fishing, Public trust(protect and manage all aquatic organisms)
Why doesn’t public Interest equal Public Trust?
Michigan’s natural resources belong to everyone in the state, and because of this we have a responsibility to take care of them. Public interest is often counterintuitive to public trust. A person’s interest in something is often counter to taking care of those resources for the long term. The rape and pillage concept. Companies want to get rid of copper mines, wetlands, and so on in order to build something and make some money, and in the process destroy the resource.
What is the difference between a treaty and consent decree?
A treaty is a written, formal document between two nations. Consent decrees are a way for the US and tribes to work together, based on the treaty language, to come up with a way to manage the resource. It is a way for both to talk about how they are going to make the rules for the treaty.
What are the three parts of sound scientific management according to Mr. Grischke?
Biologiacl science, social science, and political science.
The state’s Fisheries Division Management Units are based on what?
impacts on the users, impacts on the fisheries themselves. Impacts on the users and on the resource.
What are the four basins?
Michigan, Huron, Superior, and Erie.
What are the four sections within Fisheries Division?
Field, research, fish production, and administration.
What happened in 2011?
This is when the decision was being discussed. At this time, in Lake Huron, there was a major ecosystem change going on. A huge loss of primary productivity occurred. A huge chunk of the bottom of the food chain disappeared. Primary productivity had changed(algae) and it had created a domino effect on the food chain. It was unprecedented in recorded history. There was also a major shift in predator-prey relationships. there was a major imbalance. There was also a collapse of crayfish and poor returns from the stocked salmon. These two are really what drove the DNR into the decision making process. Everything they knew about the salmon and their prey the alewife, had collapsed. The alewife were gone and the salmon they had stocked into Lake Huron were not being caught.
What is bottom up control or impact? How does it apply to this example?
how the primary producers have an impact on the entire food chain. since there was a loss of primary productivity, that is how this applies.
What is top down control or impact?How does it apply to this example?
how predators have an impact on the entire food web. This applies to the example because salmon, the top predator, were now gone. phytoplankton were the foundation of the food chain.
Are most of the Chinook Salmon harvested in Lake Huron wild or hatchery reared?
Where do lake trout fit into this story?
Nowadays we have to stock Lake Trout. They don’t naturally reproduced. In the last few years we have seen Lake trout recovery. In 2004 there was a major change in lake trout recovery. In 2004 after 50 years of rehab, it coincided with the collapse in alewife. The collapse in algae and crayfish as well. Alewife are invasive. Made their way through the welland canal and it is pretty much all chinook eat. Alewife contain thymenase. It’s a chemical in their body and it prevents the uptake of thymen which is critical to reproductive success in alewife. As Lake trout munch on alewife for years, they take in the thymenase. It breaks down the Lake Trout’s own ability to use thymen. The eggs they then produce are no good. They are eating and surviving but not reproducing. After alewife collapsed the lake trout took off, meaning there are a whole lot of mouths out their to feed. There is now natural reproduction fish that need food on top of all of the stocked fish.
What about walleye?
The walleye had an ok catch rate. Then in 2004 the catch rate goes off of the charts. It was unprecedented. This was because alewife disappeared. As it turns out, alewife turned out to be a major predator of walleye fry. They prohibited walleye from becoming a naturally reproducing fish. They were so successful in coming back they completely stopped the walleye stocking program since 2007. Throughout 90’s when quaggas had a big impact, cray fish were dwindling. To the point where by 2004 alewife were zero.
What about alewife, Dreissenid Mussels and round goby?
The mussels were invaders in the 1980s and started showing up in large numbers in the 90s. They are too numerous to count. They came over from ballast water. The round goby showed up. Collectively, these two changed the great lakes for a long, long time. Mussels became extremely abundant. They are filter feeders and they feed on the microscopic water. A huge density of these will make a difference in lower trophic food availability. This caused zooplankton to have less to eat meaning that alewife had less to eat. There are still predators swimming around needing something to eat.
Why was most of the Chinook salmon stocking in Lake Huron discontinued in 2012?:
The returns were horrible. Compared to the millions of fish they were stocking per year, only about 1,000 were caught. It wasn’t worth all of the tax payers’ money they put into it so they stopped.
Why did they keep stocking in 3 sites (be specific)?
-Nunn’s Creek: One of the agreement’s with the tribes was they would stock in Nunn’s Creek. It was a legal obligation.
-Swan River: the swan is one of the facilities where they take eggs from chinook salmon to keep things going. It’s a back up facility. They used it as a back up. Long story short, they just get eggs from here so that’s why they kept it. They also want to keep fish coming back for a back up.
-Cheboygan River: It was a good established fishery with return. They stocked salmon here, they go out to great lakes and get big, then come back into river. It’s a pretty good fishery. Cheboygan was also added because of someone’s testimony. Social pressure, and political pressure.
Was it top down or bottom up?
It was a mixture of both.
What are 3 defining principles that have important implications for fisheries and wildlife management?
evolutionary change, dynamic ecology, human presence.
What are the two dimensions of human influence on wild populations?
ecological(changes in abundance, structure, and distribution) and evolutionary(changes in heritable features and adapted traits).
What is human-based selection and how does it differ from natural selection?
in natural selection people typically think survival of the fittest. The bigger and better an animal is, the more likely it will survive. All animals that are outcompeted die. This is a good thing, you want the biggest and best animals to pass on their genes. Human selection on the other hand is not at all likely to be beneficial. For example, we typically want to harvest the biggest and best animals. In human based selection we typically harvest the biggest and best animals meaning those animals can no longer pass on their desirable traits.
-Human-induced evolution isn’t always beneficial, significant evolution can occur within a few generations in most management horizons, and changes can be difficult to reverse(darwinian debt).
Why (according to Dr. Scribner) are genetics important to fisheries and wildlife science (there were 3 reasons)? Describe what is meant by each:
1. genetic variation provides the raw material for future adaptation and is the basis for a species evolutionary flexibility to environmental change. For example, if you’re a fish, you have to deal with climate changes, threats from new species, effects due to pollution, and so on. Genetic variation is what allows organisms to adapt to these perturbations.
2. Genetic variation measured at the level of genes of quantitative genetic traits represents the fundamental level of biodiversity. We take sea duck example. There are ducks that are readily identifiable, but within the four species they aren’t all randomly mating. Within a species there are subspecies, or evolutionary distinct units. Even within the subspecies there is genetic variation. Not everyone has an equal opportunity to mate with one another. there are different breeding aggregations. Within the different breeding aggregations there are local aggregations and within the local aggregation there are genealogical relationships with extended family units. Even individually you have different genes. At this individual level you can look at how biologically organized different groups are at different levels.
3. There are many conservation challenges that mangers face where the theory and principles of population genetics and information obtained from genetic studies assist biologists to make informed decisions. This means management moves its best foot forward when there is a scientific basis underlining the information managers have that they can use. genetics is a very important tool for biologists to make informed decisions.
The loss of genetic diversity is good. True or False? Support your answer.
False, when you go from past to present, there is less genetic variation meaning that organisms aren’t able to adapt to perturbations. The rate of evolutionary change in a population is proportional to the amount of genetic diversity available. The less genetic variation there is, the less a population can evolve.
What factors can lead to a loss of genetic diversity?
population exploitation(harvest and what not), population supplementation, and environmental degredation(habitat loss, fragmentation, and so on).
Be familiar with the Sea Duck Diversity example. Noting that diversity can be measured at many levels – coarse to fine scale
There are ducks that are readily identifiable, but within the four species they aren’t all randomly mating. Within a species there are subspecies, or evolutionary distinct units. Even within the subspecies there is genetic variation. Not everyone has an equal opportunity to mate with one another. there are different breeding aggregations. Within the different breeding aggregations there are local aggregations and within the local aggregation there are genealogical relationships with extended family units. Even individually you have different genes. At this individual level you can look at how biologically organized different groups are at different levels.
physical, phenotype, genetic. The two major areas are acquisition of basic scientific data to draw inferences pertaining to ecological and evolution processes. The second one is how data can be used in conservation and management.
Describe how genetics can be used in fisheries and wildlife (Dr. Scribner’s applications – he got through the first 10 of them) and be familiar (know the general area of application – what Dr. Scribner called the application) with the examples he provided. Be very familiar (to the point that you could describe the problem, what was done and the result) for at least 1 of the examples.
The way genetics can be used in fisheries and wildlife is it allows us to predict potential consequences of proposed management actions.
1. Evaluation of the affects of inadvertent management.
2. Genetic Principles Applied to Aquaculture
3. Harvest Management.
4. Capture-Recapture using molecular markers
5. Whole population pedigree analyses
6. Assessing success of restoration programs based on relative success of reintroduced individuals.
7. DNA forensics and systematics used to protect threatened and endangered species.
8. Evaluation of endangered species status.
9. Assessment of factors affecting species distribution, abundance, recruitment, and mortality.
10. Landscape Genetics.
Inadvertent Management Practices Example: We have all the salmonids and they introduced through hatchery work. Fish come to a weir, they are captured, they take the eggs and sperm from those individuals, and those eggs and sperm produce millions of fish that are stocked ever year. managers have been thinking it would be great to just breed the biggest individuals. You have a parental population of normal distribution, you have a size average. Managers say they can improve the quality of individuals so they decide to breed the biggest and best fish. They have the potential to move population phenotypes in directions that may not be very positive.
In Michigan there are individuals affecting reproduction timing. managers would go out and put weirs in the rivers very early in the year. They and quotas saying they had to collect so many millions of eggs and they stopped collecting individuals when they did that. if they got all of their eggs in one day they would be done. Time of reproduction is heritable and in Michigan the average time of reproduction. As a result managers ended up moving reproduction time from early November to late september.
Scribner was asked to go around to hatcheries and go to the weirs where they were collecting gametes and he was supposed to provide some insight as their practices throughout the whole system. what he saw was they would take 4-5 males and they would fill up a ketchup bottle with sperm and they would take eggs from 5-10 females put it in a bucket and spray ketchup bottle on the eggs. They then add water to activate sperm. When bottles were empty they took more males, filled up another ketchup bottle and continue the process. All their goal was was to fertilize eggs.
Scribner said yeah you can do it if all you’re interested in was to plant lots of fish. he said there could be sperm competition and not all of the males could be contributing equally. He did an experiment where they took ten males and ten females and mated them one to one, and then mated one to two where they put the sperm of one male first, the the sperm of the second male second, then they did a ketchup bottle experiment where they took the eggs of five females and sperm of five males and they put sperm on eggs. These are common methods used in midwest for steelhead. They genotyped a couple hundred offspring. they then asked what the proportion of unrelated individuals were. they looked at the mean relatedness and the higher the value the more related. they also looked at the effective number of individuals contributing. the answer was 90% of the offspring were unrelated.
when they took many males and mixed their sperm with the eggs of many females what it did was made the percentage of relatedness of offspring higher meaning the genetic diversity in the population became much lower.
What are the top 10 things you can do to successfully start and maintain a career in FW? Be
familiar with each of these 10 things and the information contained within each one. Do not memorize every agency and web site, but the main point(s) Jim was trying to get across.
-Gain as much experience in your major before you graduate( can help you decide what concentration you want, you develop useful skills, and it helps you build references for other employers)
-When searching for a job consider all possible employers(private, non-profit, state, federal)
-Make yourself known to as many fish or wildlife professionals as possible(graduate students, professors, clubs)
-Become active with your professional societies (clubs and what not)
-DO the best you can academically
-Take a variety of elective courses that will help you professionally
-DOn’t limit yourself geographically, search far and wide for jobs
-take advantage of all the career resources available to you
-Produce the highest quality employment and application materials
-be persistent, never give up
Be familiar with the three other things to consider.
-be cautious what you post on social web sites
-be cautious of personalized e-mail addresses
-your career path is rarely straight and exactly what you thought it would be.
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