11/15/07 Gardner Chapter 7: From Seven Hills to Three Continents The Art of Ancient Rome Numerous races, religions, tongues, traditions, and cultures w/in Roman empire From Village to World Capital Roman Empire centered in Rome, founded by Romulus in 753 BCE Republic Kings, Senators, and Consuls 8th century BCE Rome was composed on small wood huts on Palatine Hill Essentially an Etruscan city (politically/culturally) in the Archaic period Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Built by Etruscan King/designed by Etruscan architect Etruscan material of mud brick/wood Decorated w/ terracotta statuary 509 BCE Tarquinius Superbus, last of Rome?s Etruscan Kings, was thrown out Constitutional government established Power mainly vested in a senate (council of elders, senior citizens) and 2 elected consuls A dictator could be appointed for a specified time/purpose Leaders came from wealthy landowners (patricians) and later from the plebian class of farmers/merchants/freed slaves Descendants of Romulus conquered Rome?s neighbors The Craze for Greek Art 211 BCE was turning point for Rome/Roman art Conquer of Syracuse brought spoils of war/artistic patrimony Exposure to Greek sculpture/painting/marble temples increased as Romans expanded conquests beyond Italy Greece became a Roman province in 146 BCE Etruscan basis for Roman art/architecture never forgotten Mix of Etruscan/Greek traditions is distinctly Roman Architecture Eclecticism on the Tiber Temple of ?Fortuna Virilis? (Temple of Portunus), Rome, Italy 75 BCE Freestanding columns confined to deep porch Built of stone, overlaid w/ stucco in imitation of gleaming white marble on Greek temples Ionic columns, w/ flutes, bases and a matching Ionic frieze Attempted to imitate Greek peripteral temple, while keeping Etruscan plan Engaged Ionic ½ columns on sides/back of cella Pseudoperipteral temple Designs combine Etruscan/Greek elements, but uniquely Roman Tivoli?s Temple on a Cliff Temple Of Vesta Circular plan/Corinthian columns High doorway reached only by narrow stairway leading to cela door Introduced axial alignment, not see in Greek tholoi Steps continue all the way around the temple in the Greek examples Cella constructed out of concrete, not masonry blocks Concrete Transforms a Hillside Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia; late 2nd century BCE Several terraces leading up a hillside to a tholos at the peak Reflects taste for colossal Hellenistic designs Concrete barrel vaults support the terraces/cover ramps leading to central staircase Grand complex symbolic of Roman power Subjection of nature to human will/rational order Manifestation of Roman imperial spirit Compare to Greece Temple on top of hillside NOT hillside Sculpture Portraits and Society Patrons of Roman Republic?s great temples/sanctuaries Men from old/distinguished families; very proud of lineage Imagines: likenesses of ancestors in wooden cupboards in homes/paraded them at funerals of prominent relatives Slaves/former slaves could not possess any family portraits Under Roman law, their parents/grandparents were property Freed slaves ordered portrait reliefs for tombs to commemorate new citizen status Republican Verism Surviving portraits of prominent Roman Republican figures appear to be literal reproductions of individual?s faces Portraits were how the patrician class celebrated its elevates position in society Style somewhat related to Hellenistic/Etruscan style Exclusively men of advanced age Only the elders held power Patricians didn?t ask sculptors to make them appear nobler than they were Requested brutally realistic images of distinctive features Veristic: superrealism; true to natural appearance Head of a Roman Patrician; Otricoli, Italy; 75-50 BCE; Marble Didn?t miss the slightest detail of surface change on the face Blunt records or exaggerated types designed to make a statement about personality? Serious, experienced, determined, loyal to family ? all virtues important to the Republic Old Heads on Young Bodies Head alone enough to constitute a portrait Greeks believed head and body inseparable Republican veristic heads often places on bodies o which they could not belong Portrait of a Roman general; Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy; 75-50 BCE Typical stern Republican head atop a youthful, almost nude body Modeled after Greek athletes/heroes Patrician cultural superiority/heroicized the person portrayed Caesar Breaks the Rules Portraits of illustrious forebears on Republican coins No Roman dared to place on portrait on coin until Caesar in 44 BCE Portrait and title, dictator perpetuus (dictator for life) Denarus (standard Roman silver coin) is root of word ?penny? Veristic tradition shows Caesar?s receding hairline/aging face Placing likeness of a living person on a coin violated norms of Republican propriety Used to mold public opinion in favor of ruler by announcing his achievements Real/fictional achievements Pompeii and the Cities of Vesuvius Buried by a Volcano August 24, 79 CE Mount Vesuvius erupted Ruins undisturbed for 1,700 years Reconstruction of art/life of Roman towns of Late Republic and Early Empire Oscans, Samnites, and Romans Oscans were first to settle at Pompeii 5th century BCE Samnites took over 80 BCE new Roman colony founded on site; Latin was official language An Archaeological Park Streets/pavement/sidewalk still there Private homes w/ painted walls; gardens Kitchen utensils in place Called the living city of the dead Architecture The Heart of Pompeii Forum: public square of a Roman town; center of civic life Located at geographic center at intersection of main north-south street (cardo) and main east-west avenue (decamanus) Generally closed to all but pedestrian traffic Monumental form in 2nd century BCE 2 story colonnades on 3 sides of narrow, long plaza Temple of Jupiter (North end) Converted into a capitolium (shrine for Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) when Roman city Standard Republican type Made of tufa covered with fine white stucco Combined Etruscan plan with Corinthian columns Faces civic square, the dominating area Different from Greek columns Area within the porticos empty except for statues commemorating local dignitaries/emperors Citizens conducted daily commerce/held festivities Secular/religious structures; town?s administrative offices Basilica: (late 2nd century BCE) housed law court of Pompeii; used for official purposes Earliest well preserved building of its kind Plan resembles forum itself (long, narrow; 2 stories) Scheme had long history in architecture; similar to Christian church Gladiators and Wild Animals Arial view of the amphitheater, Pompeii, Italy; 70 BCE Earliest structure known Could seat about 20,000 people Seating assigned by rank (civic and military) Roman hierarchy on display at every event Amphitheater: double theater; Roman structures resemble Greek Cavea: seating area (this one was continuous and elliptical) Barrel vaults form retaining wall that holds up earthen mound/stone seats Also forms tunnels leading to arena (central area where gladiators fought; latin for sand (which soaked up the blood)) Sharp contrast to Greek theater, the home of refined performances of comedies/tragedies Brawl in the Pompeii amphitheater; 60-79 BCE Shows cloth awning (velarium) that could be rolled down from the top of cavea to shield spectators from sun and rain Distinctive double staircase that allowed large numbers of people to enter/exit in cavea in an orderly fashion Townhouses for the Wealthy Private homes occupied most space outside civic center Evidence of Roman domestic architecture unparalleled Atrium of the House of the Vettii; Pompeii, Italy; 2nd century BCE (rebuilt 62-79 CE) Wealthy brothers; able to purchase what previously only patricians could purchase The Roman House Resembles plan of typical Etruscan house (like Tomb of Shields and Chairs) Inward facing Painting Painted Walls Everywhere True frescoes with color applied while plaster was still damp Once dried, surface polished to achieve marble-like finish 4 Pompeian Styles Basis for study of Roman painting The First Style and Greece Masonry Style Aim was to imitate costly marble panels using painted stucco relief First Style wall painting in?Samnite house; late 2nd centrury BCe; Herculaneum, Italy Illusion of walls constructed Approach comparable to modern practice Documented in Greek world (4th century BCE) Example of Hellenization of Roman architecture Second Style Illusionism 80 BCE new style became more popular, but first style never went completely out of fashion Second Style is antithesis of first style Has precedents in Greece (?) Or Roman invention Evolved in Italy and popular until around 15 BCE Aim was to dissolve a room?s confining walls and replace them with the illusion of an imaginary 3D world; done purely pictorially Confined to painted platform that projects across the room Dionysiac Mysteries at Pompeii Dionysiac mystery frieze; second style wall painting?; 60-50 BCE; Pompeii, Italy Chamber used to celebrate, in private, the rites of Greek god Dionysos Dionysos was focus of unofficial mystery religion popular among women in Italy Cult?s initiation rites depicted? Young women united in marriage w/ Dionysos Figures interact across the room Not seen in Hellenistic Greece Figures from mythological Greece, but Roman design Perspective Painting Mature second style designs 3D setting also extends beyond the wall Cubiculum M of the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor; 50-40 BCE Painted doors and gates invite viewer to walk thru walls Demonstrated knowledge of single point linear perspective Often incorrectly said to be an innovation of Renaissance artists All receding lines converge on a single point along central axis Shows depth/distance Ancient writers state Greek painters of 5th century BCE first used linear perspective Favored by Second Style painters An Empress?s Painted Garden Ultimate example of second style picture-window wall Villa of Livia Atmospheric perspective: indicates depth by the increasingly blurred appearance of objects in the distance Third Style Elegance Polar opposite to First Style Third Style: artists no longer attempted to replace wall w/ 3D works; decorated walls w/ delicate linear fantasies sketched on mostly 1 color backgrounds Villa of Agrippa Postumus; Boscotrecase, Italy; 10 BCE Didn?t use illusionistic painting to penetrate wall Impossibly thin colonnettes support featherweight canopies Landscapes/mythological scenes appear in frames, like modern canvas hung on walls Roman Painting and Latin Poetry Differences in style, but show love of country life/idealization of nature Appears in pastoral poetry of Vergil 5th century manuscript containing some of Vergil?s pastoral poems Provided insight about nature of Roman illustrated books Nero and the Fourth Style Fourth Style: taste for illusionism returned; popular around 62 BCE (time of earthquake) Preferred manner of mural decoration when town buried by ash Room 78?Nero; 64-68 BCE; Rome, Italy Landscapes; animals Views thru walls are also part of a design Irrational fantasies Viewer looks out at fragments of buildings painted on white ground seen as rest of wall Architecture became another motif in the painter?s ornamental repertoire Painting Before the Eruption Painters rejected quiet elegance of 3rd/4th style Favored crowded/confusing compositions Ixion Room; Pompeii, Italy; 70-79 BCE Décor of dining room is a resume of all previous styles Unrelated to each other, do not show a unified cityscape beyond the wall Greek Myths on Roman Walls Ixion Room?s name comes from mythological panel painting at center of rear wall Like small private art gallery Paintings based on lost Greek panels Contest to Roman?s continuing admiration for Greek artworks Mythological figures were subject of Roman mosaics as well Mosaics decorated walls/ceiling Neptune and Amphitrite; 62-79 BCE; Herculaneum, Italy Sea god/wife preside over running water of fountain Pretentious Private Portraits Subject for wall paintings/mosaics diverse Landscapes: second, third and fourth style walls Paintings/mosaics: scenes from history (Battle of Issus) Painted portraits appear in houses Portrait of a husband and wife; 70-79 BCE; Pompeii, Italy Originally part of Fourth style wall Man holds scroll, woman stylus Standard attributes in Roman marriage portraits Fine education of those depicted Roman equivalent for modern wedding pictures Realistic portrait placed on conventional figure type Painting in the Inanimate Interest in individual appearance extended to everyday objects Inclusion of still-life painting in second, third and fourth styles Still life with peaches; Herculaneum, Italy; 62-79 BCE Painters wanted to create illusionistic effects when depicting small objects (and landscapes) Paid careful attention to shadows/highlights Roman studies of food/other objects not seen until Dutch still lives Goal was to paint light as one would strive to paint touchable object that reflects/absorbs it Early Empire Antony and Cleopatra Murder of Caesar (44 BCE) plunged Rome into a bloody civil war Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide 30 BCE Egypt became part of Roman empire Passage from old Roman Republic to new Roman Empire in 27 BCE happened when the Senate conferred majestic title of Augustus on Octavian Augustus recognized as princeps (first citizen), occupied all key positions Consul and imperator (commander in chief) Pontifex maximus (chief priest of the state religion) Augustus had control of all aspects of Roman public life The Pax Romana Augustus brought peace to war-weary Mediterranean world Pax Romana (Augustan Peace) which lasted 2 centuries; called Pax Romana Emperors commissioned huge number of public works (roads, bridges, forums, temples, etc.) Imperial portraits/arches covered w/ reliefs recounting the emperor?s great deeds Presented a picture of the emperor/achievements ? little historical fact Purpose was to mold public opinion Used art and architecture for propaganda Augustus and the Julio-Claudians (27 BCE-68 CE) Augustus, Son of a God When Octavian inherited Caesar?s fortune, rule by elders came to an end Roman portraitists called on to produce images of a youthful head of state Portraits designed to present the image of a godlike leader, a superior being than never aged Inspired by Classical Greek art Portrait of Augustus as general; Primaporta, Italy; 20 BCE; marble copy Closely based on Polykleitan style Overall shape, sharp ridges of the brow, tight cap of layered hair Cupid at base proclaims divine descent Every facet of the Primaporta statue carried a political message Livia, Never-Aging Empress Portrait bust of Livia; Faiyum, Egypt; early first century CE Sports latest Roman coiffure Blemish-free skin/sharply defined features derived from Classical Greek goddesses Coiffure change with the introduction of each new fashion, but face remained young A Shrine to Peace Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Agustan Peace); 13-9 BCE; Rome, Italy Monument celebrates his most important achievement (establishment of peace) 4 panels depict carefully seleceted mythological subjects Female personification; east façade; 13-9 BCE; Rome, Italy Seated matron w/ babies on lab; her identity is uncertain Tellus (Mother earth) Epitomizes fruits of Pax Augusta Bountiful earth in bloom, animals live peacefully side by side Augustus sought to present his new order as a Golden Age equaling that of Athens under Pericles Emulation of classical models was a political and artistic one Parthenaic freize stands for all processions, while the Ara Pacis depicts a specific event w/ recognizable contemporary figures Children act like children, rather than miniature adults as they frequently do in art Children had never appeared before on a Greek/Roman monument Appeared because Augustus was concerned w/ decline in birthrate among nobility Enacted a series of laws to promote marriage, marital fidelity, and raising children Rome, the Marble City Construction of new forum next to Julius Caesar?s forum Made of white marble (Carrara) New availability of Italian marble Part of Augustus?s larger program to make his city equal to Periclean Athens Forum of Augustus References to Classical Athens/Acropolis Copies of Caryatids of the Erechtheion in upper story of porticos Porticos contained portrait statues; Augustus?s family history became part of Roman state?s official history Practical function of alternative area to conduct state business Gave emperors opportunity to present their own version of history to the Roman people Rome in France Forum of Augustus in ruins, but conservative neoclassical Augustan style it epitomizes can be seen in preserved temple at Nimes in France Maison Caree, Nimes, France Larger than Temple of ?Fortuna Virilis? Pont-du-Gard; Nimes, France, 16 BCE Augustan project (aqueduct bridge) Demonstrates skill of Rome?s engineers Provided 100 gallons water a day for inhabitants 30 miles away Claudian Rustication Porta Maggiore; Rome, Italy; 50 CE Constructed at the point where 2 of Rome?s water line converged Attic (upper story) Rusticated (rough); example of rough masonry style Nero?s Golden House Great fire destroyed large sections of Rome in 64 CE Rebuilding required a new code that required greater fire proofing, resulting in widespread use of concrete (cheap/fire resistant) Severus and Celer; plan of the octagonal hall of the Domus Area of Nero; Rome, Italy Rich decorations w/ marble paneling, painted/gilded stucco Unremarkably structural, even though built out of concrete Octagonal hall Rooms lit by spaces left between vaulted ceiling and central dome?s exterior First time architects thought of walls/vaults not as limiting, but shaping Used malleable nature of concrete and not limited to rectilinear forms of traditional post-and-lintel construction The Flavians (69-96 CE) 68 CE Nero forced to commit suicide, ending Julio-Claudian dynasty Colossus and Colosseum Decision to build the Colosseum was shrewd politically Name comes from location beside Colossus of Nero Thousands of lives lost in gladiatorial/animal combats An Engineering Marvel Colosseum was a complex system of barrel-vaulted corridors After the fall of Rome, it served as a quarry for ready-made building materials Spectators sat according to social hierarchy Décor of exterior had nothing to do w/ function Combined Greek orders w/ the arch Tuscan Doric, Ionic, and then Corinthian columns from ground up Roman practice of framing an arch w/ an applied Greek order had no structural purpose, but it added variety to the surface The Revival of Verism Vespasian was unpretentious; distanced himself from Nero?s extravagant misrule Portraits were much simpler/made a political statement Resuscitated the veristic tradition of the Republic Portraits recorded his receding hairline, aging, leathery skin Proclaiming tradition Republican values in contrast to Nero?s An Elegant Flavian Woman Portraits of people of all ages survive from Flavian period (not just old people) Portrait bust of a Flavian Woman; Rome, Italy; 90 CE Probably a Flavian princess Purpose was to idealize beauty through contemporary fashion Hair produced by a drill Drill played an increasing role in Roman sculpture A New Arch for a New God Arch of Titus; Rome Italy; 81 CE Triumphal arch has a long history in Roman art/architecture Freestanding arches commemorated a wide variety of events, not just military ones Typical triumphal arch Consists of only one passageway Composite columns (Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus leaves) Spandrels (area between arch?s curve and the framing columns/entablature) Roman emperors normally proclaimed gods after they died The Spoils of Jerusalem Relief panels inside Arch of Titus Triumphal parade of Titus down Sacred Way after conquest of Judaea Spoils of Jerusalem, relief; 81 BCE; Rome, Italy Sculptor rejected low relief of Ara Pacis Titus in Triumph Triumph of Tutus, relief; 81 BCE; Rome, Italy Allegorical figures transform the relief from a record of Titus?s battlefield success into a celebration of imperial virtues Intermingling of divine/human figures (Personification of Honor/Valor) First known instance of divine beings interacting w/ humans on an official Roman historical relief High Empire The Roman Empire at its Peak Height of power reached in 2nd century CE under Trajan, Hadrian and Antonines Pax Romana meant unprecedented prosperity for those under Roman rule Trajan (98-117 CE) The First Spanish Emperor Domitian demanded to be addressed as dominus et dues (lord and god) Angered senators, assassinated in 96 CE Trajan was first non-Italian to rule Rome Instituted social programs Granted the title optimus (the Best) Goal of new emperors was to be luckier than Augustus, better than Trajan A New Colony in Africa Plan of Timgad (Thamugadi); Algeria; founded 100 CE Physical embodiment of Roman authority Key to Romanization of the provinces Design resembled Roman military encampment or castrum Square divided into equal parts by two main streets Cross at right angles and are bordered by colonnades Monumental gates mark ends of the two avenues Differed from sprawling cities of Pompeii and Rome Modification of Hippodamian plan of Greek cities; more rigidly ordered Most colonial settlements laid out the same way Expresses unity and centralized power of Roman Empire at its height Rome?s Greatest Forum Major building project was new forum Glorified Trajan?s victories in his 2 wars against the Dacians; paid for by spoils of war Apollodorus of Damascus: architect and chief military engineer during Dacian wars Incorporated main features of most early forums Exception was that a basilica, not a temple, dominated the colonnaded open square Temple set behind the basilica Reminders of Trajan?s military prowess Larger than life bronze equestrian statue Statues of captive Dacians stood above the columns of the forum portico Basilica Had no apses, or semicircular recesses, on each short end Entrances were on long side facing the forum Clerestory allowed light in Early Christian architects embraced this feature for design of first churches Trajan?s Columnar Tomb Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan; Rome, Italy; Dedicated in 112 CE Idea of covering shaft of a colossal freestanding column with a continual spiral narrative frieze invented here and was often copied Was topped by a nude statue of the emperor; now statue of St. Peter Square base decorated w/ captured Dacian arms/armor serves as tomb Reliefs depict Trajan?s 2 successful campaigns against the Dacians Increases width as it goes up, therefore easier to see Low relief so as to not distort contours of shaft Narrative not a reliable chronological account of Dacian wars as once thought Shopping in Imperial Rome Markets of Trajan, build by Apollodorus Housed shops and administrative offices Multilevel complex on a slope possible because of concrete Taberna: a single-room shop covered by a barrel vault Wide doorway w/ window above it to let light into a wooden storage attic above Triumphal Arch Billboards Arch of Trajan; Benevento, Italy; 114-118 CE Every inch of surface used to advertise the emperor?s achievements Trajan as guarantor of peace and security in the Empire, benefactor of the poor, and patron of soldiers/merchants Trajan freely intermingles w/ divinities Jupiter hands thunderbolt to emperor, awarding him dominion over earth Scenes depicting the ?first citizen? of Rome as a divinely sanctioned ruler in the company of the gods, became the norm in official Roman art Racing in the Circus Maximus Restoration of Circus Maximus Funerary relief of a circus official; Ostia, Italy; 110-130 BCE; Marble Not a product of one of the emperor?s official sculptural workshops Distorted perspective Continuous narration: the same figure appears more than once in the same space at different stages of a story Charioteer show driving the horses and holding the palm branch of victory Not the first instance, but didn?t become common until much later Wife on right shown standing on a base ? shows she?s a statue not a living person Handshake between man and statue is way of saying the wife died before the husband, but did not break marriage bond; will reunite in the afterlife Rules of classical design ignored here Made for a non-elite patron Hadrian (117-138 CE) Hadrian and Greece Always depicted as a mature adult who never ages Portrait bust of Hadrian as general; Tel Shalem, Israel; 130-138 BCE; Bronze Inspired by Classical Greek statuary Kresilas?s portrait of Pericles Models were mature Greek men Wore a beard; became norm for Roman emperors The Temple of all Gods Work began on the Pantheon soon after Hadrian became emperor Aerial view of the Pantheon; Rome, Italy; 118-125 CE Reveals full potential of concrete Building material/shaping architectural space Originally approached by a columnar courtyard Corinthian columns were traditional, everything else was revolutionary Huge hemispherical dome on top of concrete cylinder behind columnar porch Based on intersection of 2 circles Dome symbolized the heavens Concrete of varied composition used Hard/durable basalt used in mix for foundations Featherweight pumice replaced stones to lighten the load for the dome Dome?s weight is lessened by coffers (sunken decorative panels) Roman architects were first to conceive of architecture in terms of units of space that could be shaped by enclosures Pantheon is uninterrupted by supporting solids Hadrian?s Country Retreat Hadrian was involved with the building of his own country villa at Tivoli Canopus and Serapeum, Hadrian?s Villa; Tivoli, Italy; 125-128 BCE Grotto at end of pool is made of concrete and has an unusual pumpkin shaped dome Traditional eclecticism of Roman architecture Greek columns/marble copies of Greek statues lined the pool Corinthian colonnade is a type unknown in Classical Greek architecture Lacks a superstructure Curved/arched lintels Simultaneous respect for Greek architecture and willingness to break Greek design rules typifies much Roman architecture of the High and Late Empire A Baroque Tomb in a Mountain Roman ?baroque? architecture parallels 17th century Italian buildings Al-Khazneh (?The Treasury?); Petra, Jordan; second century CE One of most elaborate of tombs cut into sheer rock faces Classical architectural elements are used here in an ornamental fashion Disregard for classical rules Lower story resembles a temple façade Design recalls architectural fantasies painted on the walls of Roman houses Second style cubiculum from Boscoreale Ostia The Crowded Life of the City 90% of Rome?s population of ~1 million lived in multistory apartment blocks (insulae) Ostia ? Rome?s harbor city Model of an insula; Ostia, Italy; second century CE Shops on ground floors, 4 floors of apartments on top Lacked space and light of Pompeian domos Glass windows faced the noisy streets Shared latrines Brick facades 2nd century BCE brick became appreciated as attractive in its own right Frescoed Walls and Vaults Ceiling and wall paintings in Room IV of Insula of the Painted Vaults Designs appear in urban buildings and underground Christian catacombs Groin vault treated as if it were a dome Birds/flowers common at Pompeii Neptune?s Mosaics Most popular choice for elegant pavements was black-and-white mosaic Neptune and creatures of the sea, floor mosaic in the Baths of Neptune; 140 CE Artist rejected complex polychrome modeling of figures seen in Pompeian mosaics Used simple black silhouettes enlivened by white interior lines Conceived as surface decorations, not 3D windows Worker?s Tombs 2nd century CE Ostian tombs constructed of brick-faced concrete Facades resembled those of contemporary insulae of the living Communal tombs Decorated with small painted terracotta plaques immortalizing activities of middle class Funerary reliefs of a vegetable vendor?; second half of 2nd century CE; painted terracotta Looks out at viewer, therefore commemorates midwife not mother Scenes of daily life depicted on Roman funerary reliefs all over W. Europe The Antonines (138-192 CE) Succession By Adoption 138 CE Hadrian adopted the 51 year old Antoninus Pius Required that Antoninus adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lusius Verus Assured a peaceful succession Classical and Nonclassical Apotheosis ascent to heavens Decursio the ritual circling of the imperial funerary pyre Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina; pedestal of Comumn of Antininus Pius; 161 CE Remains firmly in classical tradition Elegant, well proportioned figures, personification, and a single ground line New elements include fusion of time Faustina died 20 years before Antoninus , but shown ascending together Represents Antoninus? faithfulness Notion employed before in reliefs of slaves/middle class but never used in an elite context Decursio, pedestal of the Column of Antoninus Pius; Rome, Italy; 161 CE; marble Breaks classical convention Figures are stockier than those on apotheosis relief Ground is the whole surface of relief Only occurred before in plebian art (not imperial) Imperial Majesty on Horseback Break from the past occurred in portraits of Marcus Aurelius; imperial iconography retained Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius; Rome, Italy; 175 CE; Bronze Emperor possesses a superhuman grandeur (larger than any human in relation to horse) Conveys aesome power of the godlike Roman emperor as ruler of the whole world Statue inspired many renaissance sculptors to portray patrons of horseback Mistakenly thought to portray Constantine, the first Christian emperor of Rom Saved statue from being melted down as they were regarded as impious images from the pagan world Equestrian statues often used for imperial portraits Trajan in the middle of his forum Expresses Roman emperor?s majesty and authority Disquieting Antonine Portraits Portrait of Marcus Aurelius, detail of a relief from a lost arch; Rome, Italy, 175-180 CE Used a drill to render long hair/beard/accentuate pupils Portraits of aged emperors were not new Ventured beyond Republican verism Ruler?s character, thoughts and soul were exposed Marked beginning of the end of classical art?s domination in the Greco-Roman world From Cremation to Burial Reversal of funerary practices may reflect influence of Christianity and other Eastern religions that believed in afterlife for the body Emperors continued to be cremated in traditional Roman manner Private citizens opten for burial Required larger containers ? sudden demand for sarcophagi Sarcophagi more similar to modern coffins than any other ancient burial container Orestes on Roman Sarcophagi Greek mythology was popular subject for decoration Greek heroes/heroines given portrait features of deceased Following model of imperial portraiture Sarcophagus w/ the myth of Orestes; 140-150 CE; marble Repetition of sarcophagus compositions indicated that sculptors accessed pattern books Sarcophagi was major production during High and Late Empire Western sarcophagi have reliefs only on front and sides; placed in floor-level niches Eastern sarcophagi have reliefs on all 4 sides and stood in center of burial chamber A Mortal Venus?s Coffin Asiatic sarcophagus w/ kline portrait; Melfi, Italy; 165-170 CE; Marble Eastern type; decoration on all 4 sides Statuesque images of Greek gods/heroes Lid portrait carries on tradition of Etruscan sarcophagi Also featured on Western style sarcophagi Roman Mummy Portraits Mummy portrait of a man; Faiyum, Egypt; 160-170 CE; Encaustic on wood Painter had a refined use of brush/spatula Encaustic: technique of mixing colors w/ hot wax and then applying them to the surface Eastern and Western Roman sarcophagi ad mummy cases of Roman Egypt all served same purpose Late Empire A Civilization in Transition Time of Marcus Aurelius, Rome on a decline Commodus, who succeeded his father Marcus Aurelius was assassinated Late Empire was a pivotal era in history which the pagan ancient world was gradually transformed into the Christian Middle Ages The Severans (193-235 CE) An African Rules the Empire Septimius Severus was master of Roman world Wanted to establish legitimacy; proclaimed himself as Marcus Aurelius?s son Official portraits depict him w/ long hair/beard of his Antonine ?father? Painted portrait of Septimius Severus and his family; Egypt; 200 CE; Tempera on wood Tempera: pigments in egg yolk Only surviving painted likeness of any Roman emperor Emperor?s hair tinged w/ gray Face of younger son Geta was erased Older brother Caracalla had Geta murdered Damnatio memoriae ? political tool for Roman empire Portraying a Ruthless Emperor Portrait of Caracalla; 211-217 CE; Marble Captured suspicious nature The Nonclassical Style Takes Root Hometown of Severans was Lepcis Magna Chariot procession of Septimius Severus, relief from the Arch of Septimius Severus Relief has a stately stillness Figures in second row have no connection w/ the ground Sons detached from procession, and facing the viewer Frontality and floating figures new to official Roman art Appeared before in private art for freed slaves Late Antique style Caracalla?s Gigantic Baths Greatest in long line of bathing/recreational complexes Built to win public?s favor Design was symmetrical along a central axis Facilitated Roman custom of taking sequential plunges in cold, warm and hot water Caldarium was a circular chamber Rooms lavishly decorated w/ stoccoed vaults, mosaic floors, marble-faced walls, and statuary Landscaped gardens, lecture halls, libraries, colonnaded exercise courts, giant swimming pool The Soldier Emperors (235-284 CE) A Stormy Half Century Severan dynasty ended when Severus Alexander was murdered Next ½ century in almost continuous civil war Only significant building activity occurred under Aurelian Imperial Soul Portraits Sculpted portraits of 3rd century CE among most moving ever produced Likenesses of the soldier emperors are notable for their emotional content Portrait bust of Trajan Decius; 249-251 CE; Marble Old man w/ bags under eyes and a sad expression Anxiety can be seen in his eyes Heroic portrait of Trebonianus Gallus; Rome, Italy; 251-253; Bronze Appears in heroic nudity Physique not as strong/graceful as Greek athletes Gave way to an image of brute force Barbarians and Mithras 3rd century CE burial of dead was very popular; practiced by imperial family Battle of Romans and barbarians; Rome, Italy; 250-260 CE; Marble Piling of figures is an even more extreme rejection of classical perspective than was the use of floating ground lines Underscores increasing dissatisfaction Late Roman artists felt w/ classical style Horseman in center Wears no helmet, holds out hand showing no weapons Son of Trajan Decius Boasting that he is a fearless commander assured of victory Embraced Oriental mystery religion Mithras, the Persian god of light, truth and victory over death Philosophers and Students Insecurities led Romans to seek solace in philosophy On 3rd century sarcophagi, the deceased assumed the role of the learned intellectual Sarcophagus of a philosopher; 270-280 CE; Marble Two women look to him for wisdom Popular for Christian burials Wise-man motif used to portray deceased and Christ flanked by apostles A Critique of the Pantheon Decline for respect for classical architecture also seen Restored view/plan of Temple of Venus; Baalbek, Lebanon; 3rd century CE Circular domed cella se behind a gabled columnar façade Features intentionally depart from the norm Platform scalloped all around the cella Columns are 5 sided Corinthian capitals w/ pentagonal bases Only known instance of this Arch inserted w/in triangular pediment Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (284-306 CE) Power Shared, Order Restored Diocletian decided to share power w/ his potential rivals Tetrarchy: Rule by four. Augustus of E and W; Caesar of E and W. After Diocletian retired, tetrarchic form failed, but division into 4 spheres survived Individuality Lost 4 tetrarchs portrayed together on coins/in the round Artists represented nature of the tetrarchy, not individuals appearances/personalities 4 equal partners in power Porphyry (purple marble) Portraits of 4 tetrarchs; 305 CE; porphyry; Constantinople, Turkey Each of 4 emperors lost identity; subsumed into larger entity Identically dressed Schematic drapery; shapeless bodies; emotionless faces 2 are bearded Older Augusti distinguishing them from younger Caesars. Human figure conceived in iconic terms Idealism, naturalism, individualism and personality were in the past Diocletian?s Fortress-Palace Laid out like a Roman castrum Watchtowers flanked the gates Gave emperor a sense of security Huge domed tomb became very popular in Early Christian times Mausoleums/churches Constantine (306-337 CE) Constantine and Christianity Attributed victory over Italy to the aid of the Christian god Founded ?New Rome? Named Constantinople (?City of Constantine?) Council of Nicaea (325 CE) Christianity became de facto official religion Paganism declined rapidly Many Christian churches erected Transfer of seat of power from Rome to Constantinople and the recognition of Christianity mark the beginning of the Middle Ages Constantinian art is a mirror of this transition from classical to medieval world Erected public baths, a basilica, forum, etc. Patron of city?s first churches (Saint Peter?s) A New Arch with Old Reliefs Arch of Constantine; 312-315 CE; Rome Italy Commemorated defeat of Maxentius Largest erected in Rome since end of Severan dynasty Sculptural decoration taken from earlier monuments of Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius Reliefs fashioned to honor Constantine by recutting heads of earlier emperors w/ feature of new ruler Added labels to old reliefs Reuse of statues/reliefs evident of a decline in creativity and technical skill Carefully selected to associate Constantine w/ ?good emperors" Pictoral narrative Constantine?s Colossus Portraits resuscitated Augustan image of an eternally youthful head of state Broke w/ tetrarchic tradition as well as style of soldier emperors Portrait of Constantine; 315-330 BCE; Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy Modeled after semi-nude seated portrait on Roman images of Jupiter Held an orb ? symbol of global power Personality lost in immense image of eternal authority Colossal size, the likening of the emperor to Jupiter, the eyes directed at no person all combine to produce a formula of overwhelming power to appropriate to Constantine?s exalted position as absolute ruler. Rome?s New Basilica Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine); 306-312 CE: Rome, Italy Emperor?s image dominated interior of the basilica Interior was immense Lighting system similar to clerestory; groin vaults Seen as ideal solution to building problems Exception rather than the rule Traditional basilica form exemplified by Trajan?s Basilica Ulpia Constantine in Germany Aula Palatina; Trier, Germany; early 4 century CE Brick exterior characterized much later Roman architecture Interior/exterior closely paralleled in many Early Christian basilicas Later converted into a Christian Church Two Faces of Constantine Reveal essential character of Roman imperial portraiture and special nature of Constantinian art. In official portrait he appears older; adopted imagery of tetrarchs Clean-shaven; actual age Eternal/youthful characterized remainder of his portraits In Roman art, ?portrait? is often not synonymous with ?likeness? Classical and Medieval Later coin shows dual nature of Constantinian rule Important role as general Dressed in armor/helmet/shield w/ she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus Doesn?t carry scepter of pagan Roman emperor Holds a cross crowned by an orb Portrayed as Roman emperor and as a soldier in the army of the lord Classical and medieval world
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