The interaction ofinterdependent people who perceive incompatible goals and interference from oneanother in achieving those goals; it can vary in intensity, level, overtness,scope, and outcome. (p.288)
Conflict is created in and develops through communication, as wegenerate, share, and modify meanings. Communication is also the means by whichwe resolve or manage conflict.
This model is helpful in enabling us to see how conflict emerges anddevelops.It can help us understand the typical patterns of communication
A behavioral orientation towardconflict, or an expectation about the way conflict should be approached;typically five styles are discussed: competition, avoidance, accommodation, compromise, and collaboration.(p.301)
It can be more effective in handling conflict situations if weunderstand style of conflict.
An interactive communicative process in which interdependent partieswith differing goals attempt to reach a joint decision to settle theirdisagreement. (p.304)
Negotiation is a form of conflictmanagement. It’s essential in corporates to avoidconflicts and improve the relations among the employees. Negotiation could helpeveryone in the organization come up with the best solution.
An approach to negotiation that assumes one party must win and the otherparty will lose; focuses largely on maximizing one’s own outcomes, assuming one’sinterests are in opposition to the other party’s. (p.305)
Competitive negotiation tends tofocus on short-term goals and tangible issues, such as price and quantity.
An approach to negotiation that focuses on maximizing the outcomes ofboth parties, seeking to find solutions in which both parties are fullysatisfied; negotiators assume at least some common interests and engage in acollaborative process of information sharing and trust building rather thanpositional tactics. (p.305)
Conflict between groups or collectives; tends to increase with greater organizationalcomplexity, interdependence, and divergence of perspective. (p.309)
When we are attempting to manage intergroup conflict, we need to becareful about assuming that groups in organizations have just one point of viewon the matter.
A psychological response in which a situation is seen as important,involves uncertainty, and is interpreted as being an opportunity, constraint,or demand. (p.311)
Stress can be positive orproductive in organization. Stress raises adrenaline levels and, if channeledinto the activity, can energize us into better performances. It’s alsoimportant to know that organizational support can helps individuals deal withstress.
According to Maslach, burnout involves three issues. First, burnout isassociated with depersonalization, or an inability to be personally involved inone’s work. Second, it’s associated with diminished personal accomplishment, ora tendency to make negative self-evaluations regarding one’s performance atwork. And third, it’s associated with emotional exhaustion rather than negativeemotions per se. (p.311)
The provision of messages or resources that are intended to be helpfulto others; may be informational, emotional, material, or appraisal-oriented andmay occur through conversation, job-related feedback, global organizationalmessages, or decision making. (p.311)
Social support could beconsidered as a necessary part of maintaining a healthy organizational climate. It could help ease stress and burnout in workplace.
An organization’s external communication during a crisis, defined as asituation that may escalate in intensity, attract media or regulatory scrutiny,interfere with the usual conduct of business and affect profits, and/orjeopardize the positive public image of the company. (p.318)
A system of meaning that guidesthe construction of reality in a social community. Its manifestations includelanguages, habits, rituals, ceremonies, myths, stories, beliefs, values,attitudes, and artifacts. (p.76)
A healthy culture could encouragethe employees to stay motivated and loyal toward the organization.
A culture within a larger culturewhose members share perceptions and understandings central problems andinteract regularly within this distinct group. (p.77)
Subcultures develop in an organization aroundprofessions, departments, or regions. It need the general culture and its dominant values in order to differentiate themselves.
According to Edgar Schein, anyculture can be analyzed at three levels, which include underlying assumptions, espousedbeliefs and values, and artifacts. (p.78)
- Underlying assumptions: the pattern of learned, shared,taken-for-granted assumptions that are the ultimate source for values andaction.
- Espoused beliefs and values: culture's members discuss, confirm, or challenge strategies and goals.
- Artifacts: include buildings, dress, decor, and logos; they also include rituals, ceremonies, traditions, stories, and jargon.
Hofstede proposed five dimensionsof identity difference among national value systems to explain differentcultural orientations to work. (p.81 box4.2) Power distance: cultural emphasis on the amount of power that superiors can acceptably have over subordinates. Uncertainty avoidance: denotes the extent to which a culture can deal with uncertainties about the future without experiencing stress. Individualism-collectivism: differentiates between national cultures that emphasize individual identity, welfare, and goals and those that emphasize group welfare. Masculinity-feminity: differentiates between cultures that emphasize assertive and competitive orientations toward work. Confucian dynamism: cultures that emphasize a short-term orientation to work and those that emphasize a long-term orientation.
Rites are pervasive; we find themeverywhere. Through rites and ceremonies we express who we are, where webelong, where we come from, and where we are headed.
A term used to describe the managerial interest in managing an organization’s culture. (p.86)
Corporate culture focused onsocial integration, motivation, and commitment would help organizations achievean innovative spirit and, also a consequence, productivity and competitiveadvantage.
The notion that organizations arecultures, a complex and ever-evolving totality of people, goals, actions,experiences, and interpretations; an organizational culture, according to thisperspective, is rarely monolithic and can therefore not be controlled bymanagement or embraced by a strategy. (p.88)
The process through which an organization communicates its cultures—especially to new members. (p.96)
In everyday usage, what makes it possible for us to recognize an individual or an organization as distinct; from a systemic perspective something every living system does in order to maintainits boundaries and thus itself.
According to Albert and Whetten,the central, distinct, and enduring dimensions of an organization; according to Ashforth and Mael, unfolding and stylized narratives about the “soul” oressence of the organization; alternatively, that which represents an organization—fromeither the “inside” or the “outside.”
A feeling of oneness with anorganization, such as when members define themselves in terms of theorganization, internalize its mission, ideology, and values, and adopt itscustomary ways of doing things.
When allegiances to differentorganizations or subgroups are experienced as incompatible, such as when thecustomer orientation of one’s workplace is at odds with the orientation of anoutside professional group to which the employee belongs.
Problems facing the previouslystable identities of contemporary organizations due to over-communication,blurred organizational boundaries, mergers and acquisitions, criticalstakeholders, etc.
The systematic creation andhandling of “corporate” signifiers.
An image strategy that leans onand, to some extent, exploits the positions of other players in the marketplaceof products, services, and symbols.
Groups of people who have a stakein the organization’s activities and performance; their collective behavior candirectly affect the organization’s future.
The notion of aligning andcoordinating all communication actives across formal organizational boundariesin order for the organization to speak consistently across different audiencesand different media.
An identity strategy where theorganization uses one name and one visual style in all its communications;sometimes referred to as corporate branding.
Strategies to build and organize—oftenin a sequential manner – an organization’s identity on the basis of its raison deter,its mission statement, and its desired image.
Self-referential acts ofcommunication through which the sender relates to its own messages; althoughauto-communication is essential in building an identity, it often impliesself-absorption.
When an organization is so caughtup in polishing its identity that the original purpose for communicating itsvalues and goals are forgotten.
messages—typically prescribingrules of conduct—that organizational members recall to have had a significantimpact on their lives.
The notion that organizations have cultures that leaders should seek to nourish, shape, and ultimately controlin the interest of accomplishing instrumental goals. (p.87)
As ranging from micro-tomacro-levels, as having a certain channel or direction, as flowing through aparticular medium, as being comparatively formal or informal, as having anexplicit or implicit purpose, and as manifesting. (p.465)
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