-prescriptive norms: things that people in society believe should be true.
ex: Women are more emotional, women express more submissive emotions, men express more dominant emotions
What are some studies that looked at sex identification in emotional expression?
candy & candy 1979 - the same child was identified as either a male or a female, based on the child's gender people saw different behaviors.
Birnbaum et al (1984) adults saw puppy faces based on gender, found worried or submissive and delighted faces were thought of to be female and angry faces were thought of to be male.
What is reinforcement differences are present in the socialization of men and women?
expressions of sadness, fear, shame and embarrassment were evaluated more negatively in men. Men are seen as less likely to receive positive reinforcement when experiencing these emotions. aggression is rated, instead, more acceptable for boys and not acceptable for girls.
How do temperaments of boys and girls affect how they're raised?
parents want to raise children to be as expected by society. boys and girls are born with different temperaments, boys are more active and girls are more docile.
What are some developmental differences between boys and girls in terms of emotional expression?
infant girls engage in more social referencing of facial expression and emotional voice than boys. 1-year old girls show more empathetic reactions than do boys. girls can learn more emotional language than boys at an early age.
What are some socialization differences between boys and girls? how are they raised differently?
parents express more positive emotions to girls. They use more complex emotional language when talking to girls. parents are more tolerant of aggression in boys and of shyness in girls. mothers talk to girls with more nuanced emotional terms, typically because girls learn expressive mastery of language earlier than boys.
When measuring EMG recordings, which gender reported more accurately their responses to the slides?
communication accuracy for EMG recordings of stressful responses to pictures. Male and female senders view slides, and faces were videotaped. observers had to guess the nature of the slides, result was that females were more expressive and sent out clearer messages when viewing slides.
what is the emotional expressivity scale? Which gender reported more expressiveness?
self reports of emotional expressivity, females reported more expressiveness, possibly because they express the emotions on the scale more intensely.
What did Grossman and Wood find about emotional intensity and frequency of emotion in men?
in some studies, self reports of intensity and frequency of emotional patterns differ, grossman and wood: increased intensity and frequency of masculine emotion of anger in men.
In the study where men and women watched films and were measured on facial expression, which sex had higher self-reported experience of emotion?
men and women watch films and measured facial expression, skin conductence and self-reported experience of emotion. women were more expressive for sadness, happiness and fear. along with disgust and anger in the second study.
Did Barrett et all, (1998) find a difference between men and women on online self-reports of emotion?
participants kept a journal and filled out online self-report questionnaires, found no significant difference between sexes for the overall momentary findings.
What do PET and MRI findings show in relation to gender differences and emotion?
Measuring brain activation for negative and positive images, no difference detected based on gender.
Why is there a difference between actual emotion and remembered/online emotions?
Because people use stereotypes and biases in their reports, women report their emotions more often then men do because they more readily attend to their emotions.
What were the conclusions of Robinson et al 1998's study including the player/observer board game?
Players either had to rate their own emotions or the observed emotions. Saw that personal emotions shown no gender differences but expected differences between men and women for observers were present.
What did barrett et al 2000's "levels of emotional awareness scale" show between men and women?
"levels of emotional awareness scale" people describe emotional response to scenarios, scored for complexity in emotions. a higher score showed greater differentiation of emotional knowledge. Female showed higher scores than males.
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