-prescriptive norms: things that people in society believe should be true.
ex: Women are more emotional, women express more submissive emotions, men express more dominant emotions
What are some studies that looked at sex identification in emotional expression?
candy & candy 1979 - the same child was identified as either a male or a female, based on the child's gender people saw different behaviors.
Birnbaum et al (1984) adults saw puppy faces based on gender, found worried or submissive and delighted faces were thought of to be female and angry faces were thought of to be male.
What is reinforcement differences are present in the socialization of men and women?
expressions of sadness, fear, shame and embarrassment were evaluated more negatively in men. Men are seen as less likely to receive positive reinforcement when experiencing these emotions. aggression is rated, instead, more acceptable for boys and not acceptable for girls.
How do temperaments of boys and girls affect how they're raised?
parents want to raise children to be as expected by society. boys and girls are born with different temperaments, boys are more active and girls are more docile.
What are some developmental differences between boys and girls in terms of emotional expression?
infant girls engage in more social referencing of facial expression and emotional voice than boys. 1-year old girls show more empathetic reactions than do boys. girls can learn more emotional language than boys at an early age.
What are some socialization differences between boys and girls? how are they raised differently?
parents express more positive emotions to girls. They use more complex emotional language when talking to girls. parents are more tolerant of aggression in boys and of shyness in girls. mothers talk to girls with more nuanced emotional terms, typically because girls learn expressive mastery of language earlier than boys.