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Littleton High School
Littleton High School
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Heritable factor that controls a specific trait.
Different variations of a gene
Random, rare changes in genetic material
Physical expression of a gene
The written expression of a gene
The location of a gene on a chromosome
A genotype with two of the same alleles. Either both dominant or both recessive.
A genotype with one dominant and one recessive allele.
Someone who has the trait in their genome, but shows no sign of the trait.
Crossing an unknown genotype with homozygous recessive genotype and analyzing the offspring
What two classes of compounds make up a chromosome?
DNA and Protein
What is the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes?
Sex chromosomes determine the gender and autosomes do not.
What results in almost an infinite genetic variation in the gametes?
Crossing over and random alignment in metaphase 1
How do the number of chromosomes increase in human beings?
Which processes result in the greatest amount of genetic variation in a population?
Meiosis and Mutation
What is the cause of sickle cell anemia?
A base substitution mutation in DNA
Why is amniotic fluid collected during prenatal testing for abnormal chromosomes?
To obtain fetal cells
How does the X chromosome differ from the Y chromosome in humans?
Some genes on the X chromosome are absent from the Y chromosome.
What are the components of a eukaryotic chromosome?
One DNA molecule and many proteins
A gene has three alleles. How many different genotypes can be found for this gene?
Which characteristics are used to identify chromosomes when constructing a karyotype?
The length, position of the centromeres, and the pattern of bands on the chromosome.
If a man has blood group O and a woman has blood group AB, what is the probability that their child will be blood group O?
A boy is colorblind. Which grandfather did he get it from? Why?
-Colorblindness is a sex linked gene
-Mother was a carrier
-Father gave Y chromosome
What does the genotype XHXh indicate?
a heterozygous female
What is a test cross?
Crossing a possible heterozygote with a homozygous recessive
-Two dominant alles. This means that neither can overpower the other. This generally results in the appearance of both alleles.
List the possible genotypes for AB blood type
Two or more alleles affecting a gene.
Genes who loci are located on the same chromosome and are inherited together.
Why is it sometimes difficult to identify how certain characteristics are inherited in humans?
The inheritance may be polygenic.
Which human trait shows a pattern of polygenic inheritance?
A polygenic character is controlled by two genes each with two alleles. How many different possible genotypes are there for this character?
What are the possible outcomes of recombination?
A different combination of unlinked genes not seen in the parents or a different combination of linked genes not seen in the parents.
How does recombination normally occur for unlinked genes?
Random chromosome assortment
What is the locus of a gene?
The position of a gene on a chromosome.
What is the name of the test used to show that the observed and expected results are significantly different?
A group of genetically identical organisms or a group of genetically identical cells derived from a single parent cell.
segments of DNA formed from two, or more, different sources
Enzymes that cut DNA at very specific sites. Also called endonucleases
The unpaired ends of DNA cut by restriction enzymes.
What is one application for DNA profiling?
Crime Scene Investigation
How are plasmids used in biotechnology?
For gene transfer.
Which is a valid argument against cloning in humans?
The life expectancy of children produced by cloning might be lower than normal.
Following digestion with restriction enzymes, which laboratory technique would be used to separate the fragments of DNA?
What enzymes are used in gene transfer techniques?
Restriction Enzymes and Ligases
What happens to the unfertilized egg used in the cloning process of a differentiated cell?
Its nucleus is replaced by the nucleus of the differentiated cell.
What are the functions of the polymerase chain reaction?
Copy and amplify fragments of DNA
What are the possible applications of DNA profiling?
Solving paternity suits, aiding certain criminal investigations, and identifying people who died last century.
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