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The elasticity of demand is higher for
computers and cell phones
Countries with economies especially dependent on nonfuel minerals are more generally found in the
The primary sector of the economy includes
Quaternary economic activities are most prevalent in the
The economic integration of the world system is reflected in the great growth of global
Much of China's manufacturing growth is due to
Sharing a pool of labor with special skills and experience is characteristic of a
The withdrawal of investments from low-yielding activities and regions to other, higher yielding activities and regions is known as
Just-in-time production relies upon
One measure of the biologically productive area needed to provide the resources and absorb the waste of a region or country is its
The International Labor Organization criticizes these "vehicles of globalization" for their lack of meaningful links to their surrounding domestic economies and because they trap people in low-wage and low-skill jobs
Export Processing Zones
China's current power in the global economy are based on an economic reorientation started in the 1980s and based on
private entrepreneurship and market mechanisms.
Eco- and alternative tourism are part of what some people are now starting to see as the most recent phase in the progression of economic organization — the production of
experiences & memories
The cost advantages that manufacturers get from high-volume production are known as
economies of scale
Basic principles of commercial and industrial location are based on
access to inputs
To most equitably compare the relative levels of economic development of different countries, and to adjust for their different currencies, it is best to use
Purchasing Power Parity
In the context of economic development over the last 30 years, regional inequality across the globe
has increased with increasing globalization
The ability of a country to explore and exploit its resources is based on all but which of the following?
the value of its resources, technological innovations in the country and around the world, the political situation in that country, and economic conditions in that country
The largest sector in core economies is the tertiary sector; activities in this sector include
grocery stores and other retail and wholesale sales, legal services & entertainment
Which of the following would one expect to find in a peripheral country with a large primary sector?
coffee and cocoa been trees
With the exception of some oil-rich economies, countries with large primary sectors of the economy have GDPs/capita ________ countries with large tertiary sectors
Countries with a high proportion of economic self-sufficiency or independence from the world system, and do not contribute significantly to the world economy in terms of imports and exports, are
According to Andre Gunder Frank's "dependency theory" the development and prosperity of the world's core was based on the ________ of the periphery
The process of cumulative causation in an area drains all but ________ from surrounding areas?
According to Nobel prize-winning economist Gunnar Myrdal, cumulative causation and the spiral of local economic growth in one area tends to cause negative impacts in others called
Import substitution is an important strategy for economic growth because
domestic (local) production is supported
In the context of creative destruction in the US, investment removed from ________ provided the capital and locational flexibility for investment in peripheral countries
the Manufacturing Belt
Core-periphery patterns are modified by
deindustrialization, creative destruction, government intervention, and innovations in transport and communication
work as part of government policies to encourage cumulative causation
Manufacturing based on assembly line techniques and high wages, and reliant upon mass consumption, is known as
“Just in time” production, distribution and marketing systems are specifically associated with
Flexible production systems
Countries establish Export Processing Zones (EPZs) to attract
Offshore financial centers are designed to attract
secret, tax-sheltered monies
The term "Third World"
is a Cold War term referring to the periphery
Countries with the lowest GDP per capita have work forces engaged for the most part in
External economies can be derived through
External economies can be derived through all of the above
Peripheral regions can experience spread effects from core regions when local entrepreneurs in the periphery take advantage of
local cheap land and labor
The growth in the number and scale of transnational corporations
has increased over the last three decades
The goal of the Fair Trade movement is to
encourage sustainable production, promote social justice, ensure living wages for producers, and value women's work.
According to our text, the greatest single obstacle to sustainable development is
the lack of adequate, integrated political economic structures and systems
Secretive and hidden from taxation, as much as 60% of the world's money lies in offshore financial centers distributed throughout the world's
microstates and islands
The key concept in neo-Fordist production systems is
The concentration of the United States auto industry in and around Detroit, MI is an example of a(n)
Localization economies are cost savings that a firm achieves by
clustering with other similar firms
Regional inequalities in economic development occur not only in peripheral and semiperipheral countries, but in core countries as well
Innovations and new technology systems create new opportunities for initial advantage and cumulative causation in peripheral regions
Currently, almost all foreign direct investment goes to the world's core countries
Like Fordism, neo-Fordism relies on mass production and consumption
The elasticity of demand is low for products which have saturated their markets
The economic gap between rich and poor countries has narrowed over the last two decades
Changes in technology change the economic geography of a region
Postindustrial societies have the majority of their work force engaged in tertiary and quaternary activities
Greatly increased transnational corporate activity over the last two decades is the primary reason for the globalization of the world economy
The most important banking, finance, and business services are concentrated in a few geographic areas; they are not spread uniformly across core countries
Over the last several decades, foreign direct investment to the world's periphery has steadily declined
high GDP per capita
large primary sector of economy
high debt service relative to GDP
high mass consumption
caught in the "debt trap"
Establish Export Processing Zones (EPZs)
Less Developed Countries (LDCs)
GNP/capita < $5000
wood for fuel
single resource economies
small percent of labor force in primary sector
Tourism in Jamaica
Dairy farming in the United States
Copper mining in Zambia
Clothing manufacture in Thailand
Banking in Switzerland
Pharmaceutical research and development in New Jersey
Coffee growing in Guatemala
Oil drilling and pumping in Indonesia
Automobile manufacture in Germany
Wal-Mart retail store in Arkansas
income tax, sales tax, and property tax
In a recent report, it was found that many Mexican immigrants in Hawaii are being deported when they
travel on inter-island flights
geopolitical, and enforced with documentation (e.g., passports, visas), and are socially constructed.
Geography uses _____ as a unit of analysis to examine space
The children who have been detained most recently at the U.S.-Mexico border are from
Immigration law is handled in _____ court, which denies individuals the right to self- representation, meaning they are not assigned an attorney to defend them.
Which is not a major reason for children immigrating the U.S. from Central America?
gain citizenship through the “Dreamer” Act
What are most of these children’s parents doing in the U.S.?
Working in unskilled jobs
This phenomenon of children migrating across the U.S. border has been occurring for decades
U.S. foreign policy has played a significant role in creating the conditions in these Central American countries that the children are trying to escape
have distinctive physical, social, and cultural attributes, are socially constructed, and exert a strong influence on people’s well-being
Place can be understood as a “meaningful location,” which Agnew (1987) defines by which of the following?
location (where something exists or happens), locale (material setting for social relations), sense of place (subjective and emotional attachment to a place)
Loggers, miners, palm oil farmers
The recent crisis in Ukraine is an example of
Regionalism based on ethnic identities, and sectionalism--nationalist groups seek to break away from country
According to Cochrane and Pain (2004), globalization involves four key processes: the stretching of ________ across space
According to Cochrane and Pain (2004), globalization involves four key processes: the intensification of __________ of interaction
flows and networks
According to Cochrane and Pain (2004), globalization involves four key processes: the increasing __________ of economic and social practices
According to Cochrane and Pain (2004), globalization involves four key processes: the emergence of a global institutional _________
The vast global telecommunications systems with satellites and communication towers is an example of
institutional infrastructure supporting a global network
Under the Law of Diminishing Returns, after a certain threshold is reached, productivity declines with the continued addition of capital and/or labor. The response to this diminishing return by world empires was to
Expand its resource base, and colonize new lands
Uneven geographies of power and wealth that formed historically through industrialization and colonialism are not reflected in today’s world
The Bretton Woods Accords was an international effort to plan for post-WWII rebuilding and created all of the following institutions EXCEPT
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
According to Cochrane and Pain, the belief that globalization is inevitable and that it will result in the “end of geography” is held by
Optimistic Hyper-globalists, and pessimistic Hyper-globalists
“Right-wing” critiques of globalization often
Argue that globalization causes a loss of sovereignty, argue that countries are replaced by global institutions, and tend to be racist and conspiratorial
The transformationalist perspective on globalization would argue that globalization means the _______________ of geography
Development means more than economic growth
In addition to Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Income, some countries are looking at alternative ways to assess development, such as
Gross National Happiness and Human Development Index
Abundant natural resources can be both a benefit and a source of vulnerability for a country or region.
Self determination--the right to make economic decisions free of colonial interference.
Following the path of economic development including capitalism and free trade.
U.S. and Europe
__________ power means the ability to use your position in a system to establish rules that are advantageous to you.
The global gap between rich and poor is ___________
Depending on a person’s perspective, conceptions of “wealth” could refer to:
individual economic assets, social assets, and cultural assets of a community
The “ten chairs” in-class activity showed how wealth is unevenly distributed, so that the wealthiest _________ owns more than the bottom ____________ combined.
Core and periphery regions and processes can be found at different scales, including within a country and a city.
____________ economy is characterized by “just-in-time” production and more geographically expansive production
The growth of the Japanese auto industry has _______________ on the U.S. auto industry
The U.S. Census has no political purpose. It is a practical means to assess the population
Factors that influence population distribution and structure include
Site and situation factors, political and economic characteristics and histories, and cultural factors
The ‘graying of the core’ is a population geography trend that implies:
Decline in number of young workers to pay taxes, Increasing pressure on provision of social services and health care, and decline in birthrate
Thomas Malthus did not anticipate which of the following when developing his ideas on population
new technologies in crops and birth control
Per-capita resource use is higher in the periphery than in the core
U.S. immigration policy has historically excluded groups of people from certain regions
The distinction made by a government between “voluntary” and “involuntary” migration is often based on:
artificial divisions between economic and cultural and political reasons
_________________ describes an individual outside his/her country of origin who is seeking refuge based on a well-founded fear of persecution, but whose claims are not yet legally substantiated.
A rise in the number of forced migrations is linked to
Collapse of the USSR, rapidly growing populations, straining resources in many peripheral countries, and the “war on terror”
Environmental and political refugees are legally recognized
Jared Diamond’s work argues that global geography made certain things possible in certain areas and less likely in other areas, which is an example of
The recent lava flow on Kilauea and the different perspectives on whether or not to divert the flow exemplifies how _______________ can have different meanings to different groups.
The Columbian Exposition in 1893 utilized the concept of ___________ to help form a new American identity
Missionary activities in Hawaii led to
Introduction of printing technology, increase in literacy, and denigration of Hawaiian practices
In the Middle East, the group ISIS is drawing its main support from ___________ Muslims.
From 1946 to 2000, Palestinian territory has ________ due to political plans and conflicts
Based on the in-class video “Race: The Power of An Illusion”, there will be more genetic differences between any two individuals of different racial groups than between any two individuals within a single racial group
The advantages of a racial group being included in the categories recognized by the U.S. Census include
Greater access to resources, greater ability to claim rights, and more accurate representation
Socially constructed, and a technique of power
Races are categorized in a hierarchical structure
Katy Perry’s performance in which she dressed in traditional Japanese Geisha style and Pharrell’s wearing of a Native American headdress are examples of:
The spread of hip-hop across the U.S. is an example of ________________ of cultural practices
Stereotypes are used to justify and naturalize discriminatory policies, acts of violence, and structural inequalities in society
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