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has distinct boundaries constructed by using one specific trait; example would be the topographic boundary of Santa Clara Valley
-topographic boundary of Santa Clara Valley
-Mid-West, the South, the Middle East
-such as the civic government of San Jose, which is then delimited by the city limits
State in which a disproportionately large city dominates the urban system and is the center of economic political and cultural life -Seoul, South Korea -10 mill people in city alone
-metro area contains more than 40% of nat'l pop.-Pyongyang, North Korea -Taipei, Taiwan -Japan is NOT home to Urban Primacy
It stands for the North American Free Trade Agreement. PRD opposes it, PRI adopted and generally supports it, and PAN supports it and wants it strengthened. The goal of NAFTA is to more closely integrate the economies of Mexico, US, and Canada by eliminating tariffs and reducing restrictions so that companies can expand into all countries freely
a geographic region composed of the southernmost areas of South America (Argentina, Chile, Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay)
Maize, Capsicum, Squash, Pinto bean, Tomato, Potato, Avocado, Cacahuate, Chicle, Chocolate, Vanilla, Black raspberry, Pineapple, Nopales, Tunas, Jicama, Papaya, Sunflower seeds, Tobacco
Migrants from agricultural areas surrounding Europe, such as Turkey, Greece, Albania, that have provided much of the agricultural labor force in Western Europe since WWII
• GUEST WORKERS
• Migrants from agricultural areas surrounding Europe, such as Turkey, Greece, Albania, that have providing much of the agricultural labor force in Western Europe following WWII
Fragmented geopolitical processes & mini-nationalist movements within a state. Points to Balkan region i.e. Yugoslavia
A conference where 13 European states divided Africa into territories to be owned by those in attendance
◦ No Africa govt's attended
◦ Sudan and Ethiopia successfully resisted
During the period of global Western imperialism, a state or other political entity that remained autonomous yet sacrificed its foreign affairs to an imperial power in exchange for "protection" from other imperial powers.
· During the period of western globalization imperialism, a state or other political enitity that remained autonomous but sacrificed its foreighn affairs to an imperal power in exchange for “protection” from other imperial powers
1. The European Lowlands2. The Alpine System 3. Central Uplands 4. Western Highlands
-The European Lowlands
• The Alpine System
• Central Uplands
• Western Highlands
Wet, cool winters & hot, dry summers.Iberian Peninsula, south France, Italy south of Po River, and coastal Balkans. Areas around Mediterranean Sea.
1. Romance - Latin based 2. Germanic - North of the
Alps. Cultural hearth 3. Slavic - Eastern & Central Europe (Use Cyrillic alphabet)
The rise of rationalism & humanism influenced the structure & design of cities. Overtly displayed power & wealth.
Birthplace. The replacement of human labor with machines. The use of fossil fuels as the predominant energy sources. work time, location, and compensation was determined by someone else. Leisure occupations became centered in the community
CO2 & NO mix with H2O and make precipitation acidic. Caused by industrial and automobile emissions.
A state or national policy of reclaiming lost land(s) thought to be part of an ethnicity's homeland
Coined by Winston Churchill. Separation of capitalist Western Europe & Communist/Socialist Eastern Europe.
-Separation of capitalist Western Europe and Communist/Socialist Eastern Europe by an Iron Curtain
-The division of Europe between free and communist countries.
An area not part of but controlled by or having attributes of that state located between the dominant state & rival states. Ex: Soviet states
a neutral area between two hostile forces
States east of the Iron Curtain. Neutral area between hostile forces.
Foreign policy or any other governing function whose authority is derived from a group of states.
citizens of many EU countries can travel within the member states with no or little border checks
• EXAMPLE OF A SOFT BORDER SYSTEM
are found on the periphery of the EU or near larger sender regions outside the EU
Christianity is the predominant religion in Europe, but Islam is growingProtestant/Catholic divide Catholic/Orthodox divide
Growing SECULARIZATION, or widespread movement away from organized religion, is a growing phenomenon
Grid patternsSocial segregation by districtsConnected by well developed roads
1. Fortress2. Wall 3. Cathedral 4. Market Place 5. Charter
◦ is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments (barriers) known as dikes that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices.
January 1, 2002 many countries switched to the euro. Originally weaker than U.S. dollar now is $1.37 = 1€
-16/27 member countries use the Euro
· The franc, Deutschmark among other human currency relented to the Euro on 1/01/2002
· Originally much weaker than the US dollar
· Now 1.37$= 1 dollar
· 16 of 27 countries in Euro
· Notable standouts include; UK, Norway, Czech
◦ Was a supercontinent that also included South America, Antarctica, Australia, Madagascar and Saudi Arabia
◦ Africa was formed by this break up around 250 million yrs ago
Was a supercontinent- Africa formed from the break up 250 million years ago
◦ Massive continental uplifts caused most of Africa to be an elevated plateau
◦ Africa has narrow coastlines
◦ Moderately high elevations in Southern and Eastern Africa
◦ Has large rivers but many only navigable by large ships for short stretches
◦ in savannas, pastoralists and their animals gather when rain water is abundant and the pasture is rich, then scatter during the drying of the savanna
◦ In 2006, 2/3 of all global cases were in this region
◦ Southern Africa is the most affected
◦ Women are more likely to be infected and are typically the caregivers
◦ slow official recognition of the disease and poor access to anti-retroviral drugs remain
◦ the primary association of oneself to a defined ethnicity rather than the state
◦ caused conflicts based on the lack of correspondence between political and ethnic boundaries
◦ People who flee their own state to avoid civil war, persecution, or catastrophic economic conditions
◦ 3 million in the region
· People who flee their own state to avoid civil war, persecution, or catastrophic economic conditions
· 3 million people in Africa region
◦ A state in which corruption is so institutionalized that politicians and bureaucrats expectedly siphon off large portions of a country's wealth
◦ King of kleptocrats: Mobutu Sese Seko of Zaire
◦ Nigeria is regarded as the world's most corrupt government
◦ A landform that rims southern Africa from Angola to South Africa
◦ Abrupt elevation changes occur near the coast
◦ Drakensberg mountains are found here- the Eastern part of the Great Escarpment
◦ Formed by volcanism
◦ an eroded volcanic plateau rather than a true mtn range
◦ Head waters of the Blue Nile
◦ Most of the regions lie within the tropics
◦ dry climates north & south of equator
◦ c climates are found along South African coast
▪ wine country
◦ spoke Niger-Congo language, oriented in west Africa
◦ migrated to central Congo basin 3500 yrs ago
◦ Agriculture, metal working, and ethics generally followed this tribe
-Migrated to Central Congo Basin 300 years ago
-Agriculture, metal working, ethics followed tribe
◦ A conference where 13 European states divided Africa into territories to be owned by those in attendance
◦ No Africa govt's attended
◦ Sudan and Ethiopia successfully resisted
◦ Petite- separate bathrooms, separate restaurants
◦ Meso- division of the city into districts
◦ Grand- Resettlement of blacks into Homelands similar to reservations in the U.S.
Internally Displaced Persons
◦ people who flee homes but still reside in their home state
◦ 13 million
◦ difficult to count these populations
◦ many adjacent countries struggle to provide relief to refugee populations
· People who flee their homes but still reside in their own state
· 13 million in the region
· Difficult to count these populations
Congo- largest watershed in volume and drainage in the region
Nile- N. Africa/ middle east region-
Niger- exotic stream- 2150 mi from Atlantic Zambezi- supplies much hydroelectric power
◦ the number of people per arable unit of land
◦ population density can appear high if this is considered
◦ only 3% of Chad is arable (able to be farmed)
religions not based on a specific identity that are promoted actively, such as Christianity and Islam making them the most common in the region today
◦ a system of racial segregation in South Africa with three different scales
-continental-scale valley in East Africa extending 5,000 miles North to South.
-Formed by the divergence of Nutian Plate and Somali Plate. Large and deep lakes are found in rift valley
-“Cradle of Humanity”- Early Hominins
Europe is mostly located to the north of 40°N latitude-close to the ocean
• It should have cold temperatures and moderate precipitation but does not completely
• MARITIME EFFECT
Christianity is the predominant religion of the region, yet Islam and a growing atheist/agnostic sector are growing
• Christianity is the predominant religion of the region, yet Islam and a growing atheist/agnostic sector are growing
Islam through guest workers and Ottoman Empire
Jewish Diaspora to Spain (Sephardic) and Eastern Europe (Ashkenazi)
§ Portuguese in 1497
· Began in southern Africa
Dutch at Cape Town: 1652
British settle in 1820
o Banned slavery in 1834
o Slashedgovernment spending especially in education and health
o Privatizingthe economy ( water, oil, health, education)
o Improveterms for foreign investment (reduced corporate taxes and capital restrictions)
-Slashed government spending especially in education and health
-Privatizing the economy ( water, oil, health, education)
-Improve terms for foreign investment (reduced corporate taxes and capital restrictions)
· consists of the countries: Yemen, oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United arab emirates as well as Southern parts of Iraq and Jordan
• Rural livelihood built upon the seasonal herding of livestock
• Iconic way of life across the region, but declining in real numbers
• Bedouins in Arabia, Berbers in the Maghreb, and Bakhtiaris in Iran
· A traditional substance agricultural system in which practicioners depend on the seasonal movements of livestock with in marginal natural environments
A river that issues from a humid area and flows into a dry area otherwise lacking streams.The Nile River, the Euphrates, and Tigris.
· A river that issues from a humid area and flows into a dry area otherwise lacking streams.
· The Nile River, the Euphrates, and Tigris.
Diffusion of Islam
· Began around 613 CE, the Islamic prophet Muhammad began to share the revelation which god had, according to Muslims, started to give to him three years previously. Trading played and important role in the spread of islam in several parts of the world, notably southeast asia.
· A large Turkish-based empire that dominanted a large portion of South East Europe, North Africa nad southwest asia between the 16thand 19th centuries. Dissolved because of world war 1
After 1948 creation of a Jewish state of Israel there were multiple conflicts which lead to a division into Israel, partially-controlled West Bank, and Gaza which are all ruled by the Palestinian Authority. Don't have full statehood.
· A quasi-Gov’t body that represents planestinian interests in the west bank and Gaza Strip as a consequence of the ’93 Oslo Accords
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)Largest Population
· Great divide within the muslim world
*isolated watered areas allow irrigated agriculture
*Springs, wells, shallow aquifers allow highly INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE
*Dense settlement landscapes
· Small fertile or green areas in a desert regions, typically having a spring or well. Libya
Great man Made river
· a network of pipes that supplies water the Sahara Desert in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer system fossil aquaifier. Worlds largest irrigation project
· The original urban core of a traditional Islamic city
SOUK or SUQ
· Pivotal waterway in Egypt connecting the red sea and the Mediterranean, opened in 1869
· Native to east asia. There is considerable genetic, linguistic, cultural, and social diversity among the Han Mainly due to thousand of years of migration and assimilation of various regional ethnicities and tribes with china.
Central Place Theory -hierarchical distribution of cities in relation to each other in terms of size and their relations between adjacent rural areas
-Over 30 Chinese cities are over 1 mill in population
· industial manufacturing plants, vehicle, coal trains, etc..
· A remember of high level of bureaucracy of imperial china(before 1911). Mandarin chinese is the official spoken language of the country and is the native tongue of the vast majority of people living in north central and southwest China.
· consist of roughly seven million people, both descendants of earl emigrants from the Korean peninsula, as we all as more recent emigres from korea.
· Refers to south Korean form of business conglomerate. They are typically global and multinationls owning numerous international enterprises, controlled by a chairman who has power over all the operations.
Japanese form of business conglomerate -common business model -large firms with interest in many economic sectors -multinational companies that are jointly owned and purchase, trade, and lend goods and capital from each other
· Is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholding. It is a type of informal business group. Maintained dominance over the Japanese economy for the last half of the 20th century, the member companies own small portion of the shares in each others companies, centered on a core bank; this helps insulate each company from stock market fluctuations and takeover attempts
· An economic measure of positive balance of trade, where a country’s exports exceeds its imports. A trade surplus represents a new inflow of domestic currency from foreign markets, and is the opposite of a trade deficit, which would represent a new outflow.
· Large tropical storm, synonymous to hurricanes, that form in the western pacific oceans in tropical latitudes and cause widespread damage to the Philippines and coastal southeast and east Asia
· a language In which each symbol represents not a sound but rather a concept
o Outcast group at the bottom of the Japanese social order that has been affected by extreme discrimination
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)
· An oil cartel that seeks to control and regulate the production and export of crude oil. Rotating presidency and governance between Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Algeria. Libya, and Qatar.
Egypt: 80.4 Million
· A region in Northwestern Africa, including Morocco, Algeria, tunsia
· A series of public protests, strikes and rebellions in the Arab countries, often facilitated by social media, that have called for fundnamental government and economic reforms
Proven oil reserves
· the amount of non-renewable energy source (oil,coal and gas) still in the ground that is feasible to exploit under cureent market conditions
· an international organization and economic cartel whose mission is to coordinate the policies of the oil producing countries. The goal is to secure a steady income to the member states and to collaborate in influencing world oil prices through economic means
· A part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arabian ethnic group traditionally divides into tribes or clans