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focuses on the way in which space, place, and landscape shape culture at the same time that culture shapes space, place, and landscape.
the traditions and practices of small groups, especially rural people with a simple lifestyle (Amish/Roma).
the practices and meaning systems produced by large groups of people whose norms and tastes are often heterogeneous and change frequently, often in response to commercial products.
a way of living-the way a particular group lives in their environment. Against environmental determinism.
a single aspect of the complex of routine practices that constitute a particular cultural group.
-the trait characteristics of a group.
an area where certain cultural practices are more or less practiced by the majority of the inhabitants.
-the traits, territorial affiliation, and shared history, as well as more complex traits (language).-an articulated network that systematically determines practices.
-fuzzy concept and do not include entire cultural groups.
-diff people live within very diversely.
a spatial dispersion of a previously homogenous group.
a belief system and set of practices that recognizes the existence of a power higher than humankind.
-begins in hearth area then spread through diffusion/diaspora.
a sacred struggle in Islam
central aspect of cultural identity.
-way of communicating ideas or feelings by means of conventionalized systems of signs, vocals, etc.
regional variations of a language.
collection of individual languages believed to be related in their prehistorical origin.
the way language has changed in through spatial process from isolation.
Circassian, Hawaiian, Provencal. (due to world and official languages).
authorized by a particular nation state, assigned to a region to unify a place within the state.
must have over 100 million speakers. They have an official statues in a powerful country, create linguistic community not defined by race or ethinicity,
the geographic origins or sources of innovations, ideas, or ideologies.
form of social identity created by groups who share a set of ideas about collective loyalty and political action.
an effort to protect regional and national cultures from the homogenizing impact of globalization, especially from the penetrating influence of U.S. culture.
domination of one culture by another especially through exported products or ideas. (global brands/coke, tv/Sharon stone, exported tech/iphone, video games, etc).
a socially created system of rules about who belongs to a particular group based upon actual or perceived commonalities, such as language or religion.
-problematic classification of human beings based on physical appearance.
the practice of creating unequal castes where whiteness is considered the norm.
culture is the lens that creates values and meanings.
The spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up
Latitude of Boulder:
What historical parallel shares Boulder’s latitude:
An explorer walked one mile south, one mile east, one mile north, and came back to the original point. Where did this happen?:
The North Pole
Earth’s true shape is best referred to as an:
Feedback information that encourages change within a system is known as:
What is the approximate circumference of the Earth based on Eratosthenes’ calculations?:
Actual circumference =
40,008 km (24,860 miles)
What is the approximate latitude of Syene (now Aswan) Egypt?:
How many degrees of longitude does the earth rotate in TWO hours?:
30 degrees (360/24=15)
Although the widths of time zones vary depending on political boundaries, the approximate distance across any time zone is:
If two cities are located seven hours apart in time, how far apart are they in space?:
When the time is noon in New York City, it is 9 a.m. in San Francisco and 5 p.m. in London, England. What are the approximate longitudes of New York and San Francisco?
NY 75°W and SF 120°W (actual ~73°W and ~122°W)
The Earth can best be described as a/an __________ energy system and a/an __________ material system.
where there is an accumulation of water, the excess water gravitates
where surface water is swept away from a coast, either by surface divergence
or by offshore wind
The trade winds convergealong the ITCZ and push enormous quantities
of water that pile up along the eastern shore of continents in a process
These winds involve an annual cycle of returning precipitation with the summer Sun
and carry the Arabic word for season, mausim
: (gravity drainage winds) of larger regional scale and are usually stronger than
mountain-valley breezes, under certain conditions
temperature differences during the day and evening between
valley and mountain summits cause
prominent streams of high-speed westerly winds in the upper-level troposphere
Vast, flowing, longwave undulations in these upper-air westerlies from wavemotions
surface along which the same pressure, such as 500mb, occurs
regardless of altitude, describes air pressure in the middle and upper troposphere
Isaac Newton reasoned that Earth was not perfectly spherical because of
centrifugal force created by Earth's more rapid rotation at the equator.
Which of the following is easily determined using the position of the Sun or stars?
Which of the following is true regarding the 0° prime meridian?
There was no way of determining this meridian at sea until as late as AD 1760.
The meridian opposite of Earth's prime meridian (0° longitude) is called
The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that:
Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15° of longitude per hour.
If City A is located west of City B, the time at City A is __________ than that at City B because Earth rotates from __________ when viewed from above the North Pole.
earlier; west to east(i.e., counterclockwise)
The solar constant is the
average amount of radiation received at the top of Earth's atmosphere
During the process by which energy is produced inside of stars
hydrogen is fused together to form helium.
Radio waves have a __________ wavelength than visible light and are therefore __________ energetic.
Earth's seasons are caused by
the constant tilt of Earth’s axis throughout its revolution
In December the South Pole receives more solar insolation than the North Pole in June. This is because:
The earth is near the perihelion in December
The auroras in the upper atmosphere are caused by
the interaction of the solar wind and atmospheric gases.
Which of the following is NOT true of electromagnetic energy?
As temperature of an emitting object increases, the wavelength also increases.
The __________ emits mainly __________ which is also called __________.
Earth ; longwave radiation ; infrared
diverge from the polar high-pressure cells; weak and variable
the region of contrast between colder air toward the poles and warmer air toward the
Along the polar front and the series of low pressure cells this and Icelandic low
domincate ehe North Pacific and Atlantic.
Winds flowing out of the subtropics to higher latitudes: Bermuda high, Azores high,
The winds returning to the ITCZ from the north-east in the Northern Hemisphere
and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere
All along the equator, winds converge into the
when winds converge and ascend and spiral upward; counterclockwise in the Northern
when winds descend and diverge and spiral outward; clockwise in the Northern
Which of the following is true relative to net radiation at the thermopause?
Positive values in lower latitudes and negative values toward the poles.
Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are
composition, temperature, and function.
The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily a result of
Earth's sphericity, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays.
The amount of energy received above the South Pole during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice is __________ than that received above the North Pole during the northern hemisphere's summer solstice because __________.
more; Earth is closer to the Sun during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice
What position corresponds to the winter solstice for observers in the northern hemisphere? (Assume north is toward the top of the page.)
To the right of the sun
Given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Arctic Circle would be located at
70 degrees north
The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily explained by
Lambert’s Cosine Law
The thermosphere expands in size during periods when the Sun is __________ because __________.
active; the thermosphere acquires greater kinetic energy, which causes the gas molecules
that comprise the thermosphere to move further apart from one another.
In the annual cycle of Carbon Dioxide concentrations graphed by the “Keeling Curve”, the highest average value in May is caused by ____________________ and the lowest average value in October is caused by_________________________.
Cellular respiration ; photosynthesis
Which of the following explains why the sky is blue?
Small molecules scatter long wavelengths of light more than short wavelengths.
Which of the following is correctly matched?
conduction à molecule-to-molecule heat transfer
If a surface absorbs insolation,
its temperature increases.
If the surface of Earth were to suddenly turn white, the temperature of the planet would __________ because __________ insolation would be absorbed.
High altitudes are cooler than low altitudes because
there are fewer air molecules to absorb and radiate sensible heat
Air pollution acts to __________ the albedo of cities and therefore __________ the urban heat island effect.
a combination of the pressure gradient and Coriolis force; move parallel to
isobars, cahrecteristic of winds above the wind above the surface friction layer
isoline plotted on a weather map to connect points of equal pressure
drags on the wind as it moves across surfaces: it decreases with height above the surface. Without friction, winds would simply move in paths parallel to isobars and at high rates of speed.
a deflective force, makes wind that travels in a straight path appear to be deflected
in relation to Earth’s rotating surface. Deflects wind to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Without Coriolis force, winds would move along straight paths between high and low pressure areas.
drives air from areas of higher barometric pressure (more dense air) to areas of lower barometric pressure (less dense air), thereby causing winds. Without a pressure gradient force, there would be no wind.
the horizontal movement of air across Earth’s surface; turbulence adds wind updrafts and
downdrafts, and thus a vertical component to the definition
Air temperature above the oceans is usually more moderate than above the continents because
there is no mixing between the layers of the land, land has a lower specific heat, thesurface of the land is opaque, there is less evaporation from most land surfaces
The single most important control on temperature is
Relative to latitude and surface energy receipts, which of the following is true?
Insolation intensity decreases with distance from the subsolar point.
Average temperatures in the troposphere __________ with increasing elevation because the atmosphere is heated __________.
decrease; from the bottom-up by terrestrial infrared energy
Land has a __________ specific heat than water and therefore heats more __________.
Which of the following forces influences wind speed and direction?
Gravity, Coriolis, friction, and pressure gradient force
Air flow is initiated by the
out of; more dense
Which of the following is not true of the wind?
Air blows from regions of hotter air to regions of colder air.
If Earth did not rotate, air would flow
perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars.
If the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization were reversed, ice would be
less likely to melt
A decrease in tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation (obliquity) from 23.5 degrees to 22.5 degrees would result in __________ seasonality and____________ summers in the Northern hemisphere Latitudes.
Less ; cooler
Energy that is reflected from the atmosphere
does not act to heat the atmosphere.
measures air pressure at the surface (mercury in a tube- closed at one end and open at the other, with the open end placed in a vessel of mercury – that changes level in response to pressure changes)
the weight (created by motion, sixe and number of molecules) of the atmosphere; exerts an average force of approximately 1kg/cm squared
isoline connecting all points of highest mean temperature; trends southward in January and shifts northward with the high summer sun in July
refers to the condition of areas that are less affected by the sea and therefore
have a greater range between maximum and minimum temperatures diurnally and yearly
describes locations that exhibit the moderating influences of the ocean, usually
along coastlines or on islands
moves northward off the east coast of North America, carrying warm water far into
the North Atlantic
When water evaporates, it __________ heat energy and __________ the surrounding air.
Which of these mechanisms has not been invoked to explain mass loss from Greenland?
Decreased basal melt of out let glacier tongues
Ice shelves are an important part of the Antarctic ice sheet. Which of these is not true?
Their loss directly contributes to sea level rise
the passage of shortwave and longwave energy through either the atmosphere or
is the single energy input driving the Earth- atmosphere system
Atmospheric gases, dust, cloud droplets, water vapor, and pollutants physically
interact with isolation. The gas molecules redirect radiation, changing the direction of the
light’s movement without altering its wavelengths
When incoming insolation is diffused by clouds and atmosphere and transmits
to Earth. The downward component of scattered light.
- The shorter the wavelength, the greater the scattering; the longer the wavelength, the lesser the
The transition subjects the insolation to a change of speed, which also shifts in
example of refraction; image that appears near the horizon where light waves are
refracted by layers of air at different temperatures
A portion of arriving energy bounces directly back into space without being absorbed
or performing any work
an increase in albedo caused by clouds
light penetrates water because it is clear; light passes through it to an average
depth of 60 m in the ocean
caused by the fact that land heats and cools faster than water
airborne pollution, can be blown from the city in elongated plumes; affect urban
physical characteristics of urbanized regions; has, on average, both maximum
and minimum temperatures higher than those of nearby rural settings
Adding and subtracting the energy flow at the surface; the balance of all
radiation at Earth’s surface
the science of physical conditions at or near Earth’s surface
When pollution causes both an atmospheric warming through absorption by the
pollutants and a surface cooling through reduction in insolation reaching the surface
Assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of
energy to another
molecule-to- molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance
Gases and liquids also transfer of energy; physical mixing involves a strong vertical
Horizontal motion dominates
The absorption and emission of energy are an important factor in warming the
(condensation trails) produce high cirrus clouds stimulated by aircraft exhaust
During the height (maximum) of the last ice age,approximately 18,000 years ago, sea level
dropped by a few hundred feet.
Which of the following is true of the distribution of landand water on Earth?
The largest portion of fresh water today is located in
Water molecules bind tightly to one another. This is aresult of
How many calories does it take to raise 1 g of ice at 0 degreesCelsius to water vapor at 100 degrees Celsius?
Which of the following is FALSE about thermometertemperatures on a psychrometer?
The wet bulb has a higher temperature than the drybulb due to latent heat of condensation.
A large difference in temperature between a wet bulb and adry bulb on a sling psychrometer indicates
The smaller the difference in temperature between the wetbulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the __________ the air is and the__________.
The moist adiabatic rate is __________ than the dryadiabatic rate because __________.
If the ELR around a condensing air parcel is much greater thanthe MAR, the air parcel is most likely
Which of the following statements regarding rising air, inwhich dew point temperature has been reached, is correct?
Which of the following normally would be true of thehumidity above the hot, moist, tropical rain forests of the world?
A) Thespecific humidity would be high.
B) The relative humidity would be high.
C) The saturation vapor pressure would be high.
Which of the following would be true of the humidity abovethe hot, dry, subtropical deserts of the world during the daytime?
A) Thespecific humidity would be very low.
As air sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it willmove into a region of __________ air pressure and will therefore be __________by compression.
The fact that the saturation vapor pressure above a watersurface is higher than that above an ice surface means that
In the Bergeron process, water molecules transform from
The weather of the tropics is dominated by __________ cloudswhich forms as a result of __________.
cumulonimbus(tall, puffy, thunderstorm); convection
Which of the following would not be a reason for frequentthunderstorms in Florida?
Condensation in a storm __________ the temperature of theair and causes the air pressure in the storm system to __________.
Which of the following is true regarding air mass lifting?
A) Theworld record holder for highest average rainfall is due to orographic lifting.
Given a continental Polar air mass and continental Tropicalair mass with the same relative humidity, which air mass would have higherspecific humidity?
The cT air mass would have the higher specifichumidity.
Which is FALSE of The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)phenomenon?
What type of front produces the fastest rise of air?
Which type of front causes many hours of steady rain BEFOREthat front passes a location?
The energy source of hurricanes is
A) Warmsea water
The Sahara Desert would be the obvious zone of origin of a_________ air mass.
A) cT– continental Tropical
Which of the following is considered the end or “death” of amidlatitude cyclone?
A) Occulsion– when cold front overtakes warm front
Tornadoes in the United States occur as a result of theinteraction of warm, moist __________ air masses with cold, dry __________ airmasses, respectively.
A) mT; cP
Why are the winds in a hurricane and tornado so strong?
-The pressure gradient is strong
-Tremendous amounts of condensation occur in the center ofthe storm.
The tropical rain forest climate receives most of itsrainfall as a result of
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the tropical rainforest climate?
The annual temperature range (seasonal) is largerthan the daily temperature (day verus night) range.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding Tropical climates?
A) Summitof Mt. Kilimanjaro (~5895 m ) at 4 ° S has tropical temperatures due to thehigh insolation.
The tropical savanna (latitudes north and south of ITCZ)climate has
A) theITCZ in summer and the subtropical high in winter.
The Amazon equatorial rain forest of South America, whichextends from the east coast far into the interior, has developed in response to__________ air masses which travel from __________ in the trade wind belt.
B) mT; E to W
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the tropicalmonsoon climate?
D) The summer (high Sun overhead) is the driest timeof the year.
Dry climates are common near all of the following except:
a) onthe windward side of mountain ranges
Unusually high precipitation in arid western Americandeserts could be caused by:
A) An el Nino year
low latitude mesothermal climates –ex. north of florida) climates receive __________ precipitation during thesummer and __________ precipitation in winter.
A) convectional; frontal
The Pacific Northwest region of theUnited States is a moist environment because of
- theeffect of maritime air masses.
- the presence of mountains.
Which of the following is TRUE ofmicrothermal climates?
C) In the SouthernHemisphere, these climates develop only in highland regions.
Which of the following is FALSE ofthe microthermal subarctic climate regions of Canada and Asia?
C) This zone is notinfluenced by the Jet Stream because it is far north in latitude.
Which of the following is FALSEregarding tundra climates?
A) Spruce, fir and larchtrees survive in this climate zone.
a) arefound at both high latitudes and high altitudes
Which of the following would DECREASEthe rate at which evapotranspiration (evaporation and transpiration) occurs?
C) increased humidity
C) when water freezes insidea cloud and is then recirculated by convections currents until it falls.
The term "rain shadow"refers to
B) dry regions on the leewardside of mountain ranges.
After a cold front passes, thetemperature __________ and the pressure __________ (relative to the conditionsthat existed prior to the passage of the front).
C) decreases; increases
In which of the following areaswill thunderstorms NOT develop?
D) under areas of strong highpressure
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