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How many people in total live in the Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Trans Caucasus?
The average GNI PPP per capita in the Russian Federation, Central Asia and the Trans Caucasus
Which lake is the deepest?
exists: The entire Arctic Ocean coastline and part of the pacific.
defining characteristics: Arctic wilderness where the climate precludes any agriculture or forestry. Summer days are long, and in June no night at all. Mosses and tiny flowering plants.
defining characteristics: characterized by Boulder strewn wastes and salt pans -Kara-kum (black sands) -Kyzyl-kum (red sands) -desert farming (from Aral Sea)
Revolution started when widespread famine and hardship began to rise, WWI added to this tension as the Soviet Union eventually put an end to the tsars in 1917
- Internationalist – believed in equal rights for all nations and to break down national barriers and end ethnic rivalries.
- Believed that the U.S.S.R. federal system would provide different nationalities with political independence.- Optimistic that once inequalities were diminished, and the many nationalities became united as one Soviet people, the federated state would no longer be needed: local nationalisms would be replaced by communism
- Enforced a new national policy aimed to construct a unified Soviet people whose interests transcended nationality.
- Under his leadership, a command economy was established.
- Stalin’s industrialization drive was founded on severe exploitation of the rural population. Stalin employed police terror to compel the peasantry to comply.
- Resulted in tensions and a succession of geopolitical crises in many regions of the world including Cuba, much of the Middle East, South Asia, E Asia, SE Asia, and parts of S America, Central America, and Africa.
- It isolated the Soviet Union and its satellite countries from Western nations as a region while increasing their global reach and connections throughout the less developed world.
The Soviet Union unraveled rapidly between 1989 and 1991.
- business leaders who wielded significant political and economic power) were unpopular because of undue political influence, extreme wealth and control over media outlets
- many oligarchs asked to abide by new government banking and resource control policies
(ABA) 3 part form that can be represented as:
A Return of statement
-"Twinkle Twinkle Little Star"
a. Tierra caliente (warm land); tierra templada (moderate land); higher tierra fria (cold land); tierra helada (icy land)
a. About a year’s worth of rain, or 1.2 meters (nearly 4 years), on Central America
b. Nearly 10000 people dead, almost 20000 mission, and more than 2.5 temporarily dependent on emergency aid
c. Honduras was the hardest hit
a. World-wide changes in climate, including droughts and floods
b. Warmer and wetter winds to the coasts of Peru and Ecuador with high rainfall and flooding
1) The impacts of CLIMATE CHANGE in the region, specifically the potential of the Amazon to become a TIPPING POINT.
a. Global Warming affecting the area
b. Tipping Point: areas where climate could shift suddenly as a result of climate and environmental change.
1) The importance of the LTIPLANO for human occupation of the region
a. A plateau in the Andes
b. Important for human occupation because it provides a flatter, cooler, and wetter environment for agriculture and settlement than do the adjacent steep-slope mountains, dry low-land deserts, and humid lowlands
1) The four important cities mentioned in the textbook that have suffered significant damage from earthquakes
a. Mexico City, Managua, Guatemala City, Santiago
1) The name of the tallest waterfall in the region, which is also the tallest in the world.
a. Angel Falls—Venezuela
1) The country in which the Pampas ecosystem is found, and the countries where the similar Llanos ecosystem is found.
b. Llanos—Colombia and Venezuela
1) The highest peak in the region, and its altitude.
1) The food crops that were first domesticated in the region
a. Maize, manioc, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, squash, avocados, and pineapples
1) The percentage of the Amazon rainforest that has been cleared since 1900
1) The negative impacts of THE GREEN REVOLUTION in the region.
a. Increased dependence on imports of chemicals and machines from foreign companies; thus contributing to the debt problem
b. Poor farmers whose land was watered only by rainfall fell behind or sold their land
d. Machines replaced workers and it excluded the women
1) The importance of the TREATY OF TORDESILLAS for dividing the continent between Spain and Portugal.
a. Portugal received the area east of the line, much of Brazil and parts of Africa
b. Spain received the area to the west of the linePrevented Spanish and Portuguese competition from erupting into war
1) The resources and diseases that were introduced as a consequence of the COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE.
a. Wheat, cattle, fruit, olive trees, horses, sheep, pigs, sugar, rice, citrus, coffee, cotton, and bananas
b. Diseases: diphtheria, influenza, malaria, measles, smallpox, whooping cough, typhus
1) The key export commodities in Spanish Colonial America, and the country who produced half the world’s silver in the 16th century.
a. Silber, sugar, tobacco, gold, cacao, and indigo
a. Between September 16, 1810, when priest and peasant leader Miguel Hidalgo called for Mexican independence, and in 1824, when Simon Bolivar finally led northern South America to independence, a series of regional revolts led to the formation of independent republics in Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Colombia, Chile, and Brazil
a. Mexico, Brazil, and Argentina
1) The role of NAFTA in Mexico, specifically the positive and negative impacts of the MAQUILADORA industry.
a. Advisors promised that NAFTA would do a lot for the country’s economy
b. NAFTA has led to the creation of thousands of new jobs in Mexico and to increased wages in some industries
c. The maquiladora industry has generated more than 1.5 million jobs in Mexican cities
i. These are manufacturing facilities where components can be imported duty-free and assembled for export
a. Sub-Sahara Africa, South Asia, or Southeast Asia
1) The three largest NON-TRADITIONAL AGRICULTURAL EXPORT crops, by volume
a. Asparagus, cucumbers and gherkins, and grapes
1) The life expectancy and literacy rates in Haiti, and the life expectancy and literacy rates in Costa Rica.
a. Haiti: 62 years, literacy rate of 48%
b. Costa Rica: 79 years, literacy rate of 96%
1) The impact of the MONROE DOCTRINE across the region, specifically the three countries the USA had intervened with in the period 1896-1934.
a. It set te stage for subsequent US involvement and intervention in Latin American and the growth of US economic and political dominance in the region
b. US only intervened to maintain stability and economic success in:
i. Cuba (1896-1922)
ii. Haiti (1915-1934)
iii. Nicaragua (1909-1933)
a. After Panama proclaimed its independence in 1903, it made a treaty with the US and it specified that the US would build a canal, then administer, fortify, and defend it, “in perpetuity”
b. The Panama Canal joins the Atlantic and the Pacific across the Isthmus of Panama in Central America and shortens the ocean trade route between them by weeks
a. Evo Morales-- 2006
a. The perceived preference of Jesus for the poor and helpless
b. The writings of Karl Marx and other revolutionaries on inequality and oppression
a. Female literacy on average: 2% to 15% lower than average male population
b. Women are paid less than men.
c. Society very patriarchal and institutions have prohibited or limited women’s right to own land, vote, get divorced, and secure a decent education.
1) The part of the continent associated with Welsh immigration.
a. Brazil (196 million)Mexico (114 million)
a. Push: People leave rural areas because wages are low; because of services such as safe drinking water, heath care, and education are absent or limited; or because they do not have access to enough land to produce food for home consumption or for sale.
i. Unemployment as a result of agricultural mechanization, loss of crops, and overprice of agricultural goods as well.Environmental degradation such as natural disasters.
a. Sao Pablo and Mexican City
a. Argentina (Buenas Aires has 35% of national population)
b. Peru (Lima has 43%)
c. Chile (Santiago 39%)
d. Mexico (Mexico City 22&)
1) The country in the region that was the first in the world to give woman the vote.
a. New Zealand
1) The overall population growth rate of the region, and the country with the highest fertility rate (of 3.5).
a. 1% growth per year of 65 years to double
b. Birth rates much higher in the Pacific islands as opposed to New Zealand or Australia (very very low growth and fertility rates)
c. 3.5 children/women in Kiribati
1) The impact and purpose of the WHITE AUSTRALIA POLICY, and the year it finally ceased to exist.
a. White Australian Policy: restricted immigration to people from northern Europe through a ranking that placed British and Scandinavian as the highest priority, followed by southern Europeans.
b. Effort to maintain a European “look”
c. By 1936, more southern Europeans were immigrating, especially from Italy and Greece.
e. Lifted in 1973
1) The religious people that New Zealand discriminated against prior to WW2.
a. Irish Catholics
1) The urbanization percentage in Australia and New Zealand.
a. 66% total
b. Australia 89%
c. New Zealand 87%
1) The Pacific Island that gained a $50 million windfall from its internet domain suffix.
Marketing vs. advertising: advertising is the activity of explicitly paying for media space in order to direct favorable attention to certain goods or services, which falls under marketing, which presents the overall picture for how the company will promote, distribute, and price its products or services.
Native advertising (sponsored content)
-Early broadcast TV: (pre-1941) TV sales (in US)- government support (in Nazi Germany)
-Broadcast TV after WWII: commercials
-Cable satellite: commercials and subscription fees
-Premium cable (HBO): subscription fees with no commercials
-TV on the Internet (Hulu, Netflix, Apple TV): commercials/consumer data collection and/or subscription fees
-Non-profit TV: donations/grants and government support
***most researchers believe media have limited effects
EX.) McArthur parade: cameras positioned throughout parade meant TV showed crowd reacting to General’s presence: bad weather, so shots showed people reacting to being on TV as much if not more than the parade or McArthur; people at home wished they were there while people there wish they’d watched it at home.
EX.) Trump hosted SNL and Clinton on GMA
The media are influenced by political pressures.
The media are influenced by format.
Audiences are active recipients of media.
Frontline: Digital Nation
“In the Depths of the Net”
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