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Af: Tropical Rain Forest
Aw: Tropical Savanna orTropical Wet & Dry (dry winters)
Am: Tropical Monsoon
As: Tropical Wet& Dry (dry summers)
Locations with anaverage T° of the coldest month
<18°C (64°F) & > -3°C (26°F)
ET ---- Tundra
EF---- Ice Cap (frozen)
Areas where the Potential Evaporation > Precipitation
PE = the amount of moisture that, if it were available, would evaporate from a given area
3 variables used to determine B climates: average annual precipitation, average annual T, seasonal distribution of precipitation
the only climates based on precipitation
covers 30% of earth's land area
Parallel lines that run East-West & are measured North-South, starts at 0° (Equator), and ends at 90° (North & South Poles).
Are found in same proportions within lower atmospheres.
_____ is what produces a blue sky
Which term fits best?
______is what produces a red sky at sunrise and sunset
The total kineticenergy of all the atmos & molecules of an object or substance.
1) Receipt of Solar Radiation
2) Differential Heating of the land & water
3) Ocean Currents
4) Geographic setting & position
6) Cloud Cover & Albedo
Horizontal movement of ocean water, primarily at the surface
Instrumental in the transfer of heat energy from the tropics towards the poles, and vice versa
- clouds trap in terrestrial radiation, keeping the surface warmer, BUT also reflect solar radiation coming in
-cloudy vs. clear day = cooler on cloudy day
-cloudy night vs. clear night = warmer on cloudy night (clouds trap in LW radiation at night)
occur on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains
Occur in southern California as air moving from theinterior heads toward the coast.
Major lines of ____:
The _________ does NOT incorporate the process of convection & this a better term would be the Atmospheric Effect.
Sensible: change in temperature by conduction and convection
Latent: energy changed by water (converted into vapor, condensed, etc)
The Earth's rotation and the Meridians of Longitudedetermine the _____.
The ratio of distance on the mapto the actual distance on the ground
A _____Scale map shows a relatively small area of the Earth'ssurface.
A _______ scale map shows a relatively large area of the Earth'ssurface.
Consequences (of less _______):
2 general regions based on composition:
In order of longest to shortest wavelength: microwaves, radiowaves, uv radiation and infrared radiation
Which term fits best?
The intensity of the Sun’s radiation when it reaches the Earth’s upper atmosphereis known as the ______.
it maybe scattered, reflected, or absorbed,by the atmosphere, or godirectly to the surface
High or Low?
Substances in the atmosphere with ________ absorptive characteristics for SW include
________ is “bounced” back and forth between the atmosphere, (Clouds, dust,and the Greenhouse Gases: CO2, methane and water vapor) and the ground.
* rising air = cools at 1°C/100 m
* falling air = warms at 1°C/100 m
SARis not a constant rate but a variable rate:
.5°- .9°C/100m or 5°- 9°C/1000m
1) When an air parcel is warmer (less dense) thanthe surrounding air, the parcel will rise --- UNSTABLE air condition
2) When an air parcel is colder (denser) than thesurrounding air, it will tend to stay at the same level or sink --- STABLE air
the condition of the air when the ELR < DAR;absolutely stable conditions or absolute stability
* usually results in NO UPLIFT of air but subsidenceor sinking of air
* clear skies, maybe afew stratus clouds
*often associated with high pressure cells
the air condition of the air when ELR > DAR;absolutely unstable conditions or absolute instability
*usuallyresults in UPLIFT of the air parcel
*oftenassociated with low pressure cells
* often occurs during the warmest months & onclear days*often leads to cloud formation, cumulus clouds and precipitation
the condition of the air when ELR is between theDAR and SAR; SAR < ELR < DAR
* air can vary between Stable & Unstable
* usually ifair is saturated ---- then upper portion is UNSTABLE
if air is unsaturated ---- then lower portion isSTABLE
the process of warming aparcel of air at the surface by conduction, then the whole parcel rising intothe atmosphere since it’s warmer than the surrounding air
common in summertime as afternoonthundershowers, especially here in the S.E. US
the heating helps produce UNSTABLEconditions
part of the process that occurs in low pressure cells in conjunctionwith convergence
the process by which airis forced t rise over a mountain range or other elevated land barrier and thuscool adiabatically
*precipitationoccurs on the windward side ofthe mountain
* little or noprecipitation occurs on the leewardside
- may create a Rain Shadow Desert on the
* a mechanism associated with cold fronts &mid-latitude cyclones frontal systems)
* usually produces clouds & precipitation;often severe storms or thunderstorms
*part of the process that occurs in low pressurecells in conjunction with convection
*both convection and convergence are at work to form the Inter-TropicalConvergence Zone (ITCZ)
A parcel of moist airreaches the point of saturation where the water vapor is changed to liquid waterdroplets. Either by cooling the air T° to the d.p.T° OR by adding more watervapor.
dry, clear air back from thecold front
intense precipitation(T-storms) along the cold front; cold T’s
cyclonic flow must be established- known as vorticity.
Relative vorticity: spin relative to Earth's surface
Earth vorticity: due to Earth's daily rotation about its axis
*can occur in many parts ofthe world: tropical areas, esp. along the ITCZ in the U.S. form primarilyeast of the Rocky Mts.
*Florida is the statewith the highest incidence of T-storms (number of days/year with T-storms)
small(less than 2 miles in diameter)
severe downbursts are also a potential problemof t-storms
chargesare separated within the cloud as the t-storm develops (positive charges near the top; negativecharges at the base)
first an invisible step leader of electrons isformed from the cloud baseto the ground
then this path is illuminatedas the electrons move back cloud-ward in the return stroke
the lightning flash causesthe surrounding air Temperature to rise by 8000to 33,000 degrees C
air heated quickly,expands explosively and you hear the sound waves = thunder
thunder travels at a speedof about 1082 feet/sec (the speed of sound), SOit takes about 5 seconds for it to travel 1 mile (5280 feet)
T-storm,usually associated with a cold front or squallline
2air masses with strong temp gradient across the frontal boundary
moistair with high degree of instability
upperlevel support, jet stream, which helps pull away rising air promoting greater surface uplift
Weak tornadoes (F0-F1) form as windsdrawn into the T-storm converge andform a vortex that is in a vertical orientation
canoccur in many parts of the world, but dominate in N. America & especially the U.S.
in U.S. we avg. 750 - 800/yr
highestconcentration in an area stretching from central Texas to Nebraska, known as "Tornado Alley"
often associated with hurricanes
also seasonal with the SE U.S. tornado seasonin March/April
Form over warm ocean waters
Strong pressure gradient to generate strong winds
1) warm moist air, yields greater instability and uplift
2) ocean water temps greater than 27ºC (81ºF); this is the fuel source
3) uplift initiated by an easterly wave (trade winds at the ITCZ)
4) must form between 5-20º latitude for sufficient Coriolis Force to initiate rotation
the initial mass of thunderstorms with weak, if any, cyclonic circulation
*Usually originate in conjunction with an easterly wave, which is a large undulation or ripple in the normal trade wind pattern
*No eye or eye wall
stronger cyclonic circulation, greater development
Sustained winds near the center of thesystem between 25-37 mph
At this stage, it is given a number.
Noeye or eye wall yet!
well developed cyclonic circulation, with the beginnings of an eye wall and rain bands, but usually no distinct eye yet
Sustained winds between center and the eyewall: 38-74 mph
At this stage, the system is given a name.
fully developed with strong cyclonic circulation, a distinct center or“eye,” eye wall andspiral bands
Sustained winds within the eye wall in excess of 74 mph
category 1: 74-95 mph
category 2: 96-110 mph
category 3: 111-130 mph
category 4: 131-155 mph
category 5: 155+ mph
area of strongest pressure gradient and thus most intense winds
Greatest vertical cloud development and concentration of T-storms, and heavy rain; may also produce tornadoes
primarily stratus and nimbostratus clouds, with light moderate rain
Often find T-storms imbedded with these bands
Largest part of the storm in terms of areal coverage
Tropical Storm Watch andWarning have the same time periods, but are issued for those areaslikely to be affected by the tropical storm force winds and not the hurricane force winds
originally formed within the Earth and brought to the surface by outgassing
collected on surface after earth cooled some 3.8 BYBP
reached equilibrium amount, 1.36 billion km3, some 2 BYBP
covers 71% of Earth by area
Layer above exerts a force on the layer below it. Energy is lost as it is deflected resulting in internal friction which steadily reduces energy.
(Spinning) - Coriolis force begins to take over with depth. The average flow over the full depth of the spiral is directed at 90 degrees to the wind direction.
- leads to upwelling in coastal regions
basically cause a“piling up” of warm ocean water off the NW coast of South America
Normallythe Peru Current brings cold,nutrient-rich water up from lower depths (upwelling), which yields a largefish population
when El Niño occurs, warm waterflows south, depressing the nutrient-rich waters & thus the fish population
Typically opposite of El Nino
Warmer,drier winters in the SE US
Cooler winters in western US and GreatPlains than normal
In a warm phaseevent there is relatively low pressure over polar locations andhigher-than-normal pressure at lower latitudes
As a result, coldwinter air masses do not penetrate as far south in the eastern U.S., thuswarmer winters (warm phase causes warmer winters)
Eachweather station (10,000 around the world) collects the same dataat the same time, at least 4 times per day
Most US stations also collect data continuously or at least every hour
Anetwork of sea buoys, the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean/Triangle Trans-Ocean(TAO/TRITON) system, obtains data at sea
Satellite images & data are also usedextensively
Charts drawnfor various levels of the atmosphere at pressurelevels of 800mb, 700mb, 500mb,etc.
Numerical Weather Forecasting
Use ofsynoptic weather charts
Forecastingwhat will happen in an area, based on what is happening now in an area “upwind”
Usedextensively in current forecasting forzone forecasts
Uses what is known of the physical principles of thegases of the atmosphere to predict futureconditions
only possible after the advent of high-speed computers & Computermodels
Pastpatterns and data are used to help forecast future weather
Goodfor forecasting daily Ts
Usesidea that past weather & present weather may be the same undersimilar atmospheric conditions
PersistenceForecasts: the ideathat the present weather will be maintained for the next few hours for aparticular location
Nowcasting: used for quick, short-lived events such asthunderstorms or tornadoes
Major areaof development for medium and extendedrange forecasting withextensive use of computers
Assumptions are not always right oraccurate
Sparseobservations, especially over the oceans and in the upperair; lack of data leads to weak predictions
For precipitation, National Weather Service (NWS) is correctabout 80% of the time
Higheraccuracy for shorter periods (6-12 hrs) vs. longer (days, weeks, months)
%probability of weather events occurring only used for precip. &based on 1000 days of similar conditions
Soundings taken twice daily (0z and 12z) at 92 stations
Takes ~45 minutes for balloon to reach upper atmosphere
Balloon pops; Sensor falls back to Earth
Most are completely biodegradable
Climatechange/variability = potential impacts on many human andnatural systems
climate changes naturally over time
use course output from a GCM or RCM to drive a model with higherresolution capabilities
Strengths: Canresolve climate variables on scales not resolvable by GCMs or RCMs; Customizablefor users and stakeholders
Weaknesses: takes on errors or assumptions of the GCM used, takes multiple nests and computing power
deriving statistical relationships between large and local scale climatevariables
Strengths: Usersare interested in output for a single point; Variable desired is not handled well by RCMs; Canbe a great tool if the predictor explains large amounts of variabilityof the predictand
Weaknesses: need good record of observations; assumption that relationships of said variables will remain constant in the future
WhileGCM resolution is sufficient for analyzing large spatial patterns...natural andhuman processes are occurring at much smaller scales (e.g., convection,agriculture, river hydrology)
Complexlocal topography may exist
put 10 infront
ex.247 > 24.7 > 1024.7
put 9 in front
ex.983 > 998.3
Compare the weather between San Francisco, CA, St. Louis, MO, and Washington, DC different and what causes it to be different?
Greatest cause of T differences are fluctuations in incoming solar radiation
Changes in sun angle andlength of daylight control global distribution of T
Tropical areas have small T° variation, but as we go poleward, T° variation increases