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A low place in the ground having no outlet for surface drainage
A naturally occurring mass of earth whose crest or submit is at a lower elevation than a mountain
A flat topped mountain bounded on all sides by steep terrain
Long narrow elevation of land, often located on a mountain side
Lower area on a ridge between two hills or summits
Stretch of low land lying between hills or mountains typically occupied by a stream channel or river
Coriolis Effect causes winds in the N hemisphere to deflect
Coriolis effect causes wind in the southern hemisphere to deflect
a LOW pressure cell; area where air is ascending (up)
a HIGH pressure cell; area where air is descending (down)
Winds circulate which way around a low pressure cell (cyclone)?
counter-clockwise around a low pressure cell
Winds circulate which way around a high pressure cell (anticyclone)?
clockwise away from high pressure cell
an expression of the amount of water vapor in the air
a ratio between the amount of water vapor in the air of a given temp & the maximum amount that air could hold at that temp
what is the relationship b/w the dew point temp & relative humidity of a surface?
there's an inverse relationship;
high dew point = low relative humidity
the temperature at which a parcel of air becomes saturated
the % of solar energy reflected off a surface;
dark colors have LOW albedo
light colors have HIGH albedo
what is latent heat energy?
energy absorbed or released during phase changes of matter; energy is needed to make these atmospheric changes
the distinct, and often symmetrical geometric shapes formed by ground material in periglacial regions
1. Antarctica is not a country and so does not have an economy of its own. (pg.285)
1. The sedimentation of a reef system may ultimately kill the coral. (pg.299)
1. The Amazon River carries more than twice the amount of water of the next largest river, the Congo in Africa. (pg. 299)
1. In South America, marine life includes some of the world’s richest fisheries along the western coast of Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. (pg. 299)
1. The climate in the southern Andes countries ranges from arid regions in northern Chile and parts of Argentina to one of the world’s stormiest and wettest regions in southern Chile. (pg. 295)
1. The latitudinal position of the Andes Mountains coupled with their very high altitude results in a series of vertical zones with distinctive climate and vegetation regimes. (pg. 298)
1. Policies directed at marketing non-Russians into Russians by encouraging or forcing non-Russians to adopt Russian cultural characteristics such as the Russian language.
1. The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 called for the increase of six primary greenhouse gas emissions so that the average yearly emissions for the years 2008 to 2012 were 50% less than their emissions in 1990.
1. In Western Europe, the highest densities of population are in urbanized industrial belt from central Britain to northern France, Belgium, and Netherlands, and into Germany.
1. Germany is considered the “Motor” of Europe since it has one of the world’s largest economies and the largest in Europe.
1. The more fertile lands of western Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova have higher population densities and are punctured with greater concentrations of people around industrial cities.
1. The Cold War division of Europe between non- Communist West and Soviet Communist East ran through Germany and its capital Berlin.
1. Perestroika is the communist practice of the government, rather than the free market, deciding what goods and services need to be produced within a country.
1. The plate tectonics located in the region of Chile are the Pacific tectonic and North America tectonic.
· the control or governing influence of a nation over a dependent country,territory, or people; a practice of domination,which involves the subjugation of one people to another.
countries in North America and Europe that are economically developed where people experience a high standard of living
Expansion of desert-like conditions as a result of human induced degradation
the formation (or emergence) of new cultural (and especially linguistic) identities as a result of slavery or colonization
A duty-free & tax-exempt industrial park created to attract foreign corporations & create industrial jobs
to leave (someone) trapped and isolated in an inaccessible place, esp. an island
Conservation Efforts in Guyana
o Highest plateau region in the east
o Lakes, volcanoes, deep valleys
o Cooler climates & relatively abundant moisture
o Kenya, Zimbabwe, Angola
o Population density is high
o Forms headwaters of several important rivers, most notably the Blue Nile
on the Zimbabwe River between Zambia & Zimbabwe
Africa’s largest body of water
Densely settled due to fertile soils
Largest watershed in the region in terms of drainage & volume of flow
2nd largest in the world, after the Amazon River, in terms of annual flow
Runs through a flat basin & Africa’s largest tropical forest, Ituri
Major mode of transportation for the Republic of the Congo & the Democratic Republic of the Congo-> 2 capitals along the river
World’s largest river
Critical watershed for Egypt & Sudan
Originates in the highlands of the Rift Valley zone
Important link between North & Sub-Saharan Africa
Descends into the Sudd- a vast wetland in South Sudan
Critical watershed of Mali & Niger
Capitals located hereHistoric city of Tomboucton (Timbuktu)
red soils with high aluminum & iron deposits
greater fertility than soils in wetter zones.
found in drier grasslands & semi-desert areas
o Montane zones in East Africa, Cameroon, Guinea, & South Africa
o More rainfall than in the low lands
o Unique native plants
- South Africa (country)
o in the southwestern corner
Ex: Similar to Latin America
in the eastern coast
Ex: Similar to Florida
o Tropical Forest
o World’s 2nd largest humid equatorial forest
o In the Congo Basin
o Warm & hot climate
o Rainfall is continuous
o Major national parks: Okapi & Virunga
o Commercial logging & agricultural clearing in the West & South of the forest
Wet and dry savannas wrap around the Central African rainforest
Larger area of wet savanna south of the equator
World’s largest desert
Least amount of annual precipitation
From Atlantic coast to the Red Sea
Transposition zone between the Sahar & the Savannas
Few tropical diseases
Unreliable rain pattern
April/May desert-like condition
Movement of animals between wet & dry season pastures
o are Nigeria & Angola
Are part of OPEC
Even though Angola is a major oil producer, more than ½ of the country’s energy supply comes from biofuels
Biofuels account for 84% of the national energy supply
Food consumption gaps
Number of people per unit of arable land
o Number of farmers per unity of arable land
Majority earn a living from agricultureThe agricultural density of many Sub-Saharan African counties is 10x larger than their crude population density
11 year project - Cost: $1 Billion
Largest dam on longest river in the world (nile)
1 hydroelectric power, 2 provide irrigation water, 3 flood control
Seawater desalination plants in what 3 countries?
Hydropolitics example country?
-Located in a stretch through Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
-A range of mountains extending across the Northern Africa stretch
Give an example (rivers) of exotic rivers
Which region was urbanized 3,500 BCE? 3,000 BCE? 2,000 BCE?
Large demand for foreign workers where?
Out-migration from where to where?
-Coined by British leader Churchill, Symbolic barrier between eastern and western Europe.
Belarus and Ukraine, Northern European lowland from Germany to the Ural Mountains, 4 drainage canals.
Ukraine nuclear power plant meltdown, 1000 killed, many were left with health problems.
What 3 countries have comparableurbanization rates to industrializedcapitalist countries?
Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
Cottage communities of the rich in Moscow.
Decrease in the population, more death then births,
Eastern Europe and church leaders in Constantinople, center cultural during Russian Empire.
Political ideology, against capitalism private property, state owned, central planning of agriculture and industry, Lenin (Ulyanov) leader of the Soviet Union.
Political Union of the most republics from Soviet Union Era.
Russia gains control of nuclear weapons in other republics, Russian maintains military in Crimea.
made by Indian subcontinent into the Asian mainland. Himalayas are part of a network of High Mountain and plateaus. More extensive and elevation then anywhere in the world
Massive upland that extend 1200 miles East and west and higher that 12000 above sea level
Most large rivers in Asia originate on the Tibetan plateau and joining mountains (Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mekong and Huang He)
drying up of lakes and wet lands.
Herders use pastures in the highlands during the summer
Most male-dominated country in Central Asia
Highest birth rate by a substantial margin
Much lower birth rate than Afghanistan