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What level of structure is the output of phrase structure rules?
- Phrase structure rules create a deep structure
What level of structure is the input of transformations?
- Deep structure
How do we refer to the structure that results from the application of transformations?
If more than one transformation applies, the structure that results from the first transformation is known as what?
- Intermediate structure
Which transformations are involved in declarative sentences?
Which transformations are involved in yes/no questions?
- I-to-C movement (do-support if needed)
Which transformations are involved in indirect wh-questions?
- Wh- movement
Which transformations are involved in direct wh- questions?
- Wh- movement and i-to-c movement (do-support if needed)
- Yes/no questions, indirect and direct wh- questions
Describe I-to-C movement
- If the entire sentence is interrogative, move the contents of matrix I to C
- Does NOT leave a trace
Describe wh- movement
- Move an NP with the [+wh] feature into the specifier of CP
- Leave a trace t in the NP’s previous position
- How, what, when, where, which, who why
Indirect wh- questions vs. direct wh- questions?
- Indirect: John asked what Fred will drink
- Direct: what will Fred drink?
For a yes/no question, which Infl should you move when there are more than one Infl?
- *structure dependent- the matrix INFL
- (not structure independent- the first one)
- pronouns pick out an individual to refer to (he, she..)
- who a pronoun refers to
- when the pronoun and the noun have the same references, they are co-referential
- ex. John think he likes math. When John is the antecedent of he
- provides the referent of a pronoun
- ex. John thinks he likes math. (John can be, but doesn’t have to be the antecedent)
- a pronominal NP (pronoun) cannot be co-referential with a (noun) non-pronominal NP that it (the pronominal NP) c-commands
- (wrong hypothesis= based on liner order)
- She said that Mary left. (not allowed)
- Mary said that she left. (allowed)
- (principle c) A node X c-commands a node Y if the mother of X has Y as a descendent
Principle C is part of Universal grammar
- Principle C is a negative constraint, negative constraints are un-learnable (not hearing a sentence is not evidence that it’s ungrammatical, caregivers do not provide systematic corrections for grammar)
- Part of the grammars of most languages
- Expect children to display knowledge
- The NP that introduces the individual a pronoun refers to
- The relation that holds between a pronoun and its antecedent
- An instance of anaphora in which the antecedent follows the pronoun
Evidence that children do not use principle C
- In an Act-Out Task, children prefer to interpret pronouns as non co-referential with a following NP regardless of c-command (some interpret this to mean that children do not allow backwards anaphora)
- If true, might mean children pay attention to linear order, not c-command
Truth-Value Judgment Task
- Child presented with a sentence (uttered by a puppet because children don’t want to contradict an adult) and asked to judge if it’s true or false
- Results: 2 and 3 year old children correctly reject principle C violations 9/10 times and accept backwards anaphora 2/3
- NPI examples: ever, any, either
- an NPI is licensed only when c-commanded by a negative infl-node (infl-node filled by didn’t)
- an NPI is licensed if it is c-commanded by a quantifier that is downward entailing
Principle A (reflexive NP):
- a reflexive NP must be c-commanded by its antecedent NP
- study of the part of meaning that is determined by grammar
Native speaker’s knowledge of meaning
- can judge whether a sentence is true or false in a given scenario (truth-value judgments)
- suggests that to know the meaning of a sentence is to know its truth conditions
- rules in mental grammar that assign meanings to syntactic structures, interpretable sentences not same as grammatical (ex. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously)
- give the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a sentence is true
- ex. The cat is in a box. (true only if the cat is in a box)
- knowing the truth-conditions of sentences
- entailment, implicature, presupposition
- in fact…
Test for presupposition:
- that’s not true!...
- group of sentences G entails a sentence S if whenever every member of G is true, S is also true
- not entailment if we can imagine a situation in which G is true and S is false
- ex. John saw all the students + Sally is one of the students. Entails- John saw Sally.
- implicature of sentence S is something a speaker might reasonably convey by saying S, but does not entail S.
- defeasible, a speaker could deny an implicature without contradicting herself
- ex. Jane used to swim a mile every day. Implicates- Jane no longer swims a mile every day. (deny- Jane used to swim a mile every day. And she still does.)
- background assumption; something that we take for granted before we utter the sentence
- A presupposes B if A entails B and “that’s not true” (referring to A) also entails B
- When A presupposes B, it also entails it
- Noun phrase with a quantificational determiner (Q-det)
- Expresses a relation between the individuals described by an N’ and an I’
- Says what quantity of the N’s are I’s
- (ex. Every, some, no, many)
- A quantifier NP is downward entailing if whenever the sentence NP I’1 is true, the sentence NP I’2 is true, for any I’2 that describes the subset of I’1
- [NPNo N’] and [NP fewer than three N’] are downward entailing (‘some’ and ‘every’ are not)
- (ex. ‘No professor ran.’ Entails ‘No professor ran fast
- Ex. Set of hawks is a subset of a set of birds.
· From this, you get violence and residential segregation.
· British paramilitary soldiers sent to northern Ireland in response into the rise of the IRA (irish republican army)
· Violence is large. Since 1960s: 4,000 people killed.
· Treaty of Versailles was set up to severely punish the losers
· Germany and AH lost territory and had to pay large financial reparations.Formation of New nation states:
· 1. Czechoslovakia
· 2. Yugoslavia
· Sunni Islam
In certain portions, there are Shiite dominance—first seen in Azerbaijan and Central Afghanistan
· intervention and alliances play out as the result of the cold war
· Angola and Mozambique were trying to set up Marxist governments: aligned themselves with Cuba and Soviet Union—come to power post-1974
· The west and south Africa steps in to provide arms to the rebels
· Cold war endsà 1990s. peace negotiations
· Mozambique gets their peace first in 1990s
· Angola gets their peace in 2002.
member countries profoundly influence global prices and production targets for petroleum
-no longer controls global prices, but influences them
this aspect of Islam that advocates return to more traditional practices, calls for merger of civil and religious authority, and challenges encroachment of global popular culture
· much of the area comes under control of the Taliban
· Insist conformance to strict Islamic orthodoxy.
Continued control in Southern and Eastern portions of Afghanistan
Iran - tapping into groundwater through a series of gently sloping tunnels was widely replicated on arabian peninsula and north africa
interplay of water resource issues and politics
the number of people per unit of arable (farm) land
ecologically diverse zone, from Levant through fertile hill country of northern Syria into Iraq
plants and animals selectively bred for desirable characteristics; domestication began in this region 10,000 years ago
of livestock from winter to
Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia; dominated by the Atlas Mountains
eastern Mediterranean region of SW Asia has mountains
peninsula of Turkey
(“Asia Minor”) is a
geologically active plateau
between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Deserts stretch from the Atlantic Coast across Africa, through Arabian Peninsula, into central and eastern Iran -Mediterranean climates in the Atlas Mountains and the Levant coastline caused by altitude and latitude
-Physiological densities are among the highest on Earth
-Maghreb: moister areas of Atlas Mountains and coastal regions
-Egypt’s Nile River Valley: 70 million Egyptians live within 10 miles of the Nile
Traditional form of subsistence
agriculture that depends on seasonal movement of livestock
a river that comes from a humid area and flows into a dry area that otherwise lacks streams; it can support irrigation
collectively worked settlement that produces grain, vegetable, & orchard crops, irrigated by the Jordan River and
• Earliest cities in Mesopotamia (Eridu & Ur 3500 B.C.), and Egypt (Memphis & Thebes 3000 B.C.)
• Rise of trade centers around 2000 B.C. • Centers of Islamic religious administration and education
The original urban core of a traditional Islamic city, has central mosque and bazaar (Fes, Morocco)
Urban centers have become focal points of
economic growth (Ex: Cairo, Algiers, Istanbul)
Oil wealth has added modern element to traditional cities (Dubai, for example)
Originated in Southwest Asia in A.D. 622
• In the Judeo-Christian Tradition, sharing many of the same prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus
ISLAM MEANS "submission to the will of God"
-repeat basic creed
-pray 5 times daily facing mecca
-give charitable contributions
-fast during ramadan
HAJJ-make religious pilgrimage
vast empire of Turks; it included most of Southwest Asia and North Africa, as well as Southeastern Europe (circa 1453)
-Arabic and Hebrew
(Semite) - Berber in Atlas Mts. &
languages -Persian in Iran -Kurdish in northern
Iraq, NW Iran, eastern Turkey
Altaic language: more Turkic speakers in Central Asia
• Islamic communities well-established in central China, European Russia, central Africa, southern Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, elsewhere
• Muslim congregations expanding in urban areas of western Europe and North America
Global economy is having impact on traditional cultural values
– Fundamentalism a reaction
• Access to satellite TV, cellular phones, the internet bring global culture to the region
– Dominance of Ottoman Empire (1550-1850)
– Widespread European colonialism after WWI
– Many political boundaries set by colonial powers
• French in Algeria since 1800, later in Tunisia, Morocco,
Syria and Lebanon
• Britain in Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf by 1900
– European banks influenced Egyptian economy
– British instrumental in establishing Saudi Arabia
• Italians in Libya, Spanish in Morocco
• Turkey, Iran (Persia) never occupied
Libya formerly a problem, now moving toward cooperation
-Islamist movements in Algeria and Egypt
- Sudan had north (Islamist) vs. south (Christian and animist) war in 1990s; now has conflict between Arabs and black Africans in the Darfur region
-Construction of wall around settlements a new source of tension
· bribery services
· protection services
· 800,000 different organizations within Mafia
· biggest influences in construction, drug dealing, prostitution
· Boarder between Russia and China was something that the Russian Empire put in to place in 1858
closer to boundaries tension about who’s land it is
· Japan: continued occupation of Kuril and Sakhalian Islands.
concern: Russia has concern over expansion of NATO countries in to the area
· did not look favorably to the edition of Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania to becoming native forces.
· 25% of economic output
· has 35% of world’s reserves
· largest exporter
· largest non-OPEC producer of oil
· output of oil is greater of the US
· twice the reserves of USSoviet Union Era
· ½ of all natural gas and oil ends up in Belarus and Ukraine
· 16% of crude oil heads into Europe
· 25% of natural gas heads into Europe
Siberian gas pipeline: connects to Western Europe through the Ukraine
Yamal-Europe pipeline through Belarus
Blue Stream pipeline through Turkey.
· under influence of SU, large scale irrigation projects were put in place
· extremely arid region
· irrigation needed to grow cotton and rice crops.
· “make the deserts bloom”—irrigation policy
· impact: after decades of irrigation, major impacts: amount of water reaching Aral sea goes down
· water level in Aral sea recedes—opens up potential for erosion
· salinity increases
135/173 animal species no longer supported
· only population of 2.6 mill people
· 1.5 speak Tibetan
· Remainder speak Chinese
· also known as Lamaist Buddhism
· mixture of two different religions: Buddhism from India,Language of Bon
· Chinese government officials blame that there’s a spread in Islamic fundamentalism in the area and that’s changing the ideals of people living there.
o Government authority is destroyed within the country
o Afghanistan now split into different factions
· except: NE portion: called the “northern alliance”.
· general changes in attitude and sentiment toward Taliban
treatment of women were bad—harsh prisons sentences for no reason
strict limitation on entertainment.
· desire: have an Islamic state in the Fargana valley
· has been assisted by the Taliban and Al-Qaeda
· bombings in Tashkent
· US and Britain partner with Northern alliance
ousting of the Taliban
Portions of the West and South: still pockets of Taliban presence
· much of current presence begin in mountains of Afghanistan and boarder area with Pakistan
6 different countries banned together:
China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan
alliance against common security threats
econ cooperation btwn all members.
cultural exchange between members
*serves as a counterbalance to US influence