history tends to repeat itself - especially conflicts [trade, etc]
current factors that affect political processes - ignore the past. trade, geography, environment, political systems
ex: US & Britain - used to be colonies, but now buddies
history doesn't determine the whole relationship - other current factors!
history as an artifical construct
never one single story - hard to be objective. a matter of interpretation.
ex: US civil war - North for 'states rights' & south for 'northern aggression'
history written by the victors
you can never know what really happened - consider both sides
serbian nationalist who assassinated archduke franz ferdinand of austria.
is every event too unique?
one person can change history/cause a war
lessons of vietnam
led to hesitation of future conflicts because of deaths, loss, protests, etc. caused US to approach Desert Storm more carefully. changed not only foreign policy but American politics and their opinion of war
still influences current war in Iraq
preconceptions & biases
limitation of human psychology - influence how we interpret history
tendency to ignore/rationalize bad news
parents, teachers, peers, church, media socialize individuals; as generation: major events, where you were born, tech
shapes the way we see the world/each other which could influence global interaction
"the greatest generation"
WWII generation: depression, US isolation, women in workforce
effects: hard working, responsibility rather than entitlement
shows how one generations affected by events - creates mindset [political party]
develop worldviews based on what happened during their critical period
ex: people who grew up during Vietnam compare current war to Vietnam
ex: presidents with military experience
generations affected by events in their generation
always rational to defect in short term. in iterated game, better to cooperate. relative v. absolute gains - distribution of benefits
ex: N Korea ex: Hitler & Poland
every state has a relationship - have to think about self-interests
tit-for-tat & reciprocity
Us & Canada
have to think about longrun v. short run gains
shadow of the future
short-term v. long term
"last-period problem": no future, people might cheat
most of the world colonized, not in best interests of the colonists
ex: Britain in new world, france in africa [borders]
strategic, military, resources, influence
direct colonial rule
french in africa: imported administrators from home country.
worse off than british colonies, dependent on home country
borders at independence should be accepted from then after. [berlin conference]
contradictory maps, south american colonies fighting
how crisis can bring people together and affect society
ex: women & minorities entering workforce in WWII
greatly affects politics - transforms society
cuban missile crisis
fear of war - caused us and russia to realize the gravity of nuclear war
UK & France reconciling sudan to fight germany
6+ MIDs, at least 20 yrs long type of militarized rivalry
ex: India/Pak over Kashmir
tend to be more conflictual, more devoted to winning
3-5 MIDs in 15 yrs
ex: former yugoslavia 1990s
affects foreign policy
basic rivalry level or punctuated equilibrium
major events that fundamentally changes to processes & relationships in int'l system
ex: end of cold war ended rivalry us & ussr but also proxy wars
"breaking the ice"
britain 1700-1800s & france - textiles, iron, rail, factories
no established competitors
context of dvlp changes over time - industries/tech change
us & germany mid-late 1800s & russia early 1900s
steel, chem, electrical
more advanced tech - required stronger institutions to overcome barriers [banks, gov't]
third world 20-21st centuries
advanced tech, high entry costs,
advantages of backwardness
late-late developers can focus on today’s key sectors learn from earlier successes & failures acquire tech w/o much research & devcan attract investment w/ low labor costmore sources of foreign aid. so rapid initial growth spurts
barriers block actor's goals, and when barrier changes ins trength over time, they test it.
ex: middle east & n africa - auth gov't, military & secret police
developed over time influences others
ex: human rights
the "third wave"
now it's the norm to be dem. started 1974 - still ongoing.
"now it's the norm to be democratic"
Want to see the other 30 Flashcards in geog, hist & IR final?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!