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The spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up
Latitude of Boulder:
What historical parallel shares Boulder’s latitude:
An explorer walked one mile south, one mile east, one mile north, and came back to the original point. Where did this happen?:
The North Pole
Earth’s true shape is best referred to as an:
Feedback information that encourages change within a system is known as:
What is the approximate circumference of the Earth based on Eratosthenes’ calculations?:
Actual circumference =
40,008 km (24,860 miles)
What is the approximate latitude of Syene (now Aswan) Egypt?:
How many degrees of longitude does the earth rotate in TWO hours?:
30 degrees (360/24=15)
Although the widths of time zones vary depending on political boundaries, the approximate distance across any time zone is:
If two cities are located seven hours apart in time, how far apart are they in space?:
When the time is noon in New York City, it is 9 a.m. in San Francisco and 5 p.m. in London, England. What are the approximate longitudes of New York and San Francisco?
NY 75°W and SF 120°W (actual ~73°W and ~122°W)
The Earth can best be described as a/an __________ energy system and a/an __________ material system.
Isaac Newton reasoned that Earth was not perfectly spherical because of
centrifugal force created by Earth's more rapid rotation at the equator.
Which of the following is easily determined using the position of the Sun or stars?
Which of the following is true regarding the 0° prime meridian?
There was no way of determining this meridian at sea until as late as AD 1760.
The meridian opposite of Earth's prime meridian (0° longitude) is called
The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that:
Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15° of longitude per hour.
If City A is located west of City B, the time at City A is __________ than that at City B because Earth rotates from __________ when viewed from above the North Pole.
earlier; west to east(i.e., counterclockwise)
The solar constant is the
average amount of radiation received at the top of Earth's atmosphere
During the process by which energy is produced inside of stars
hydrogen is fused together to form helium.
Radio waves have a __________ wavelength than visible light and are therefore __________ energetic.
Earth's seasons are caused by
the constant tilt of Earth’s axis throughout its revolution
In December the South Pole receives more solar insolation than the North Pole in June. This is because:
The earth is near the perihelion in December
The auroras in the upper atmosphere are caused by
the interaction of the solar wind and atmospheric gases.
Which of the following is NOT true of electromagnetic energy?
As temperature of an emitting object increases, the wavelength also increases.
The __________ emits mainly __________ which is also called __________.
Earth ; longwave radiation ; infrared
Which of the following is true relative to net radiation at the thermopause?
Positive values in lower latitudes and negative values toward the poles.
Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are
composition, temperature, and function.
The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily a result of
Earth's sphericity, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays.
The amount of energy received above the South Pole during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice is __________ than that received above the North Pole during the northern hemisphere's summer solstice because __________.
more; Earth is closer to the Sun during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice
What position corresponds to the winter solstice for observers in the northern hemisphere? (Assume north is toward the top of the page.)
To the right of the sun
Given the tilt of the axis (20°), the Arctic Circle would be located at
70 degrees north
The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily explained by
Lambert’s Cosine Law
The thermosphere expands in size during periods when the Sun is __________ because __________.
active; the thermosphere acquires greater kinetic energy, which causes the gas molecules
that comprise the thermosphere to move further apart from one another.
In the annual cycle of Carbon Dioxide concentrations graphed by the “Keeling Curve”, the highest average value in May is caused by ____________________ and the lowest average value in October is caused by_________________________.
Cellular respiration ; photosynthesis
Which of the following explains why the sky is blue?
Small molecules scatter long wavelengths of light more than short wavelengths.
Which of the following is correctly matched?
conduction à molecule-to-molecule heat transfer
If a surface absorbs insolation,
its temperature increases.
If the surface of Earth were to suddenly turn white, the temperature of the planet would __________ because __________ insolation would be absorbed.
High altitudes are cooler than low altitudes because
there are fewer air molecules to absorb and radiate sensible heat
Air pollution acts to __________ the albedo of cities and therefore __________ the urban heat island effect.
Air temperature above the oceans is usually more moderate than above the continents because
there is no mixing between the layers of the land, land has a lower specific heat, thesurface of the land is opaque, there is less evaporation from most land surfaces
The single most important control on temperature is
Relative to latitude and surface energy receipts, which of the following is true?
Insolation intensity decreases with distance from the subsolar point.
Average temperatures in the troposphere __________ with increasing elevation because the atmosphere is heated __________.
decrease; from the bottom-up by terrestrial infrared energy
Land has a __________ specific heat than water and therefore heats more __________.
Which of the following forces influences wind speed and direction?
Gravity, Coriolis, friction, and pressure gradient force
Air flow is initiated by the
out of; more dense
Which of the following is not true of the wind?
Air blows from regions of hotter air to regions of colder air.
If Earth did not rotate, air would flow
perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars.
If the heat of fusion and the heat of vaporization were reversed, ice would be
less likely to melt
A decrease in tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation (obliquity) from 23.5 degrees to 22.5 degrees would result in __________ seasonality and____________ summers in the Northern hemisphere Latitudes.
Less ; cooler
Energy that is reflected from the atmosphere
does not act to heat the atmosphere.
When water evaporates, it __________ heat energy and __________ the surrounding air.
Which of these mechanisms has not been invoked to explain mass loss from Greenland?
Decreased basal melt of out let glacier tongues
Ice shelves are an important part of the Antarctic ice sheet. Which of these is not true?
Their loss directly contributes to sea level rise
the passage of shortwave and longwave energy through either the atmosphere or
is the single energy input driving the Earth- atmosphere system
Atmospheric gases, dust, cloud droplets, water vapor, and pollutants physically
interact with isolation. The gas molecules redirect radiation, changing the direction of the
light’s movement without altering its wavelengths
When incoming insolation is diffused by clouds and atmosphere and transmits
to Earth. The downward component of scattered light.
- The shorter the wavelength, the greater the scattering; the longer the wavelength, the lesser the
The transition subjects the insolation to a change of speed, which also shifts in
example of refraction; image that appears near the horizon where light waves are
refracted by layers of air at different temperatures
A portion of arriving energy bounces directly back into space without being absorbed
or performing any work
an increase in albedo caused by clouds
When pollution causes both an atmospheric warming through absorption by the
pollutants and a surface cooling through reduction in insolation reaching the surface
Assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of
energy to another
molecule-to- molecule transfer of heat energy as it diffuses through a substance
Gases and liquids also transfer of energy; physical mixing involves a strong vertical
Horizontal motion dominates
The absorption and emission of energy are an important factor in warming the
(condensation trails) produce high cirrus clouds stimulated by aircraft exhaust
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