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where there is an accumulation of water, the excess water gravitates
where surface water is swept away from a coast, either by surface divergence
or by offshore wind
The trade winds convergealong the ITCZ and push enormous quantities
of water that pile up along the eastern shore of continents in a process
These winds involve an annual cycle of returning precipitation with the summer Sun
and carry the Arabic word for season, mausim
: (gravity drainage winds) of larger regional scale and are usually stronger than
mountain-valley breezes, under certain conditions
temperature differences during the day and evening between
valley and mountain summits cause
prominent streams of high-speed westerly winds in the upper-level troposphere
Vast, flowing, longwave undulations in these upper-air westerlies from wavemotions
surface along which the same pressure, such as 500mb, occurs
regardless of altitude, describes air pressure in the middle and upper troposphere
diverge from the polar high-pressure cells; weak and variable
the region of contrast between colder air toward the poles and warmer air toward the
Along the polar front and the series of low pressure cells this and Icelandic low
domincate ehe North Pacific and Atlantic.
Winds flowing out of the subtropics to higher latitudes: Bermuda high, Azores high,
The winds returning to the ITCZ from the north-east in the Northern Hemisphere
and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere
All along the equator, winds converge into the
when winds converge and ascend and spiral upward; counterclockwise in the Northern
when winds descend and diverge and spiral outward; clockwise in the Northern
a combination of the pressure gradient and Coriolis force; move parallel to
isobars, cahrecteristic of winds above the wind above the surface friction layer
isoline plotted on a weather map to connect points of equal pressure
drags on the wind as it moves across surfaces: it decreases with height above the surface. Without friction, winds would simply move in paths parallel to isobars and at high rates of speed.
a deflective force, makes wind that travels in a straight path appear to be deflected
in relation to Earth’s rotating surface. Deflects wind to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Without Coriolis force, winds would move along straight paths between high and low pressure areas.
drives air from areas of higher barometric pressure (more dense air) to areas of lower barometric pressure (less dense air), thereby causing winds. Without a pressure gradient force, there would be no wind.
the horizontal movement of air across Earth’s surface; turbulence adds wind updrafts and
downdrafts, and thus a vertical component to the definition
measures air pressure at the surface (mercury in a tube- closed at one end and open at the other, with the open end placed in a vessel of mercury – that changes level in response to pressure changes)
the weight (created by motion, sixe and number of molecules) of the atmosphere; exerts an average force of approximately 1kg/cm squared
isoline connecting all points of highest mean temperature; trends southward in January and shifts northward with the high summer sun in July
refers to the condition of areas that are less affected by the sea and therefore
have a greater range between maximum and minimum temperatures diurnally and yearly
describes locations that exhibit the moderating influences of the ocean, usually
along coastlines or on islands
moves northward off the east coast of North America, carrying warm water far into
the North Atlantic
light penetrates water because it is clear; light passes through it to an average
depth of 60 m in the ocean
caused by the fact that land heats and cools faster than water
airborne pollution, can be blown from the city in elongated plumes; affect urban
physical characteristics of urbanized regions; has, on average, both maximum
and minimum temperatures higher than those of nearby rural settings
Adding and subtracting the energy flow at the surface; the balance of all
radiation at Earth’s surface
the science of physical conditions at or near Earth’s surface
During the height (maximum) of the last ice age,approximately 18,000 years ago, sea level
dropped by a few hundred feet.
Which of the following is true of the distribution of landand water on Earth?
The largest portion of fresh water today is located in
Water molecules bind tightly to one another. This is aresult of
How many calories does it take to raise 1 g of ice at 0 degreesCelsius to water vapor at 100 degrees Celsius?
Which of the following is FALSE about thermometertemperatures on a psychrometer?
The wet bulb has a higher temperature than the drybulb due to latent heat of condensation.
A large difference in temperature between a wet bulb and adry bulb on a sling psychrometer indicates
The smaller the difference in temperature between the wetbulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the __________ the air is and the__________.
The moist adiabatic rate is __________ than the dryadiabatic rate because __________.
If the ELR around a condensing air parcel is much greater thanthe MAR, the air parcel is most likely
Which of the following statements regarding rising air, inwhich dew point temperature has been reached, is correct?
Which of the following normally would be true of thehumidity above the hot, moist, tropical rain forests of the world?
A) Thespecific humidity would be high.
B) The relative humidity would be high.
C) The saturation vapor pressure would be high.
Which of the following would be true of the humidity abovethe hot, dry, subtropical deserts of the world during the daytime?
A) Thespecific humidity would be very low.
As air sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it willmove into a region of __________ air pressure and will therefore be __________by compression.
The fact that the saturation vapor pressure above a watersurface is higher than that above an ice surface means that
In the Bergeron process, water molecules transform from
The weather of the tropics is dominated by __________ cloudswhich forms as a result of __________.
cumulonimbus(tall, puffy, thunderstorm); convection
Which of the following would not be a reason for frequentthunderstorms in Florida?
Condensation in a storm __________ the temperature of theair and causes the air pressure in the storm system to __________.
Which of the following is true regarding air mass lifting?
A) Theworld record holder for highest average rainfall is due to orographic lifting.
Given a continental Polar air mass and continental Tropicalair mass with the same relative humidity, which air mass would have higherspecific humidity?
The cT air mass would have the higher specifichumidity.
Which is FALSE of The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)phenomenon?
What type of front produces the fastest rise of air?
Which type of front causes many hours of steady rain BEFOREthat front passes a location?
The energy source of hurricanes is
A) Warmsea water
The Sahara Desert would be the obvious zone of origin of a_________ air mass.
A) cT– continental Tropical
Which of the following is considered the end or “death” of amidlatitude cyclone?
A) Occulsion– when cold front overtakes warm front
Tornadoes in the United States occur as a result of theinteraction of warm, moist __________ air masses with cold, dry __________ airmasses, respectively.
A) mT; cP
Why are the winds in a hurricane and tornado so strong?
-The pressure gradient is strong
-Tremendous amounts of condensation occur in the center ofthe storm.
The tropical rain forest climate receives most of itsrainfall as a result of
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the tropical rainforest climate?
The annual temperature range (seasonal) is largerthan the daily temperature (day verus night) range.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding Tropical climates?
A) Summitof Mt. Kilimanjaro (~5895 m ) at 4 ° S has tropical temperatures due to thehigh insolation.
The tropical savanna (latitudes north and south of ITCZ)climate has
A) theITCZ in summer and the subtropical high in winter.
The Amazon equatorial rain forest of South America, whichextends from the east coast far into the interior, has developed in response to__________ air masses which travel from __________ in the trade wind belt.
B) mT; E to W
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the tropicalmonsoon climate?
D) The summer (high Sun overhead) is the driest timeof the year.
Dry climates are common near all of the following except:
a) onthe windward side of mountain ranges
Unusually high precipitation in arid western Americandeserts could be caused by:
A) An el Nino year
low latitude mesothermal climates –ex. north of florida) climates receive __________ precipitation during thesummer and __________ precipitation in winter.
A) convectional; frontal
The Pacific Northwest region of theUnited States is a moist environment because of
- theeffect of maritime air masses.
- the presence of mountains.
Which of the following is TRUE ofmicrothermal climates?
C) In the SouthernHemisphere, these climates develop only in highland regions.
Which of the following is FALSE ofthe microthermal subarctic climate regions of Canada and Asia?
C) This zone is notinfluenced by the Jet Stream because it is far north in latitude.
Which of the following is FALSEregarding tundra climates?
A) Spruce, fir and larchtrees survive in this climate zone.
a) arefound at both high latitudes and high altitudes
Which of the following would DECREASEthe rate at which evapotranspiration (evaporation and transpiration) occurs?
C) increased humidity
C) when water freezes insidea cloud and is then recirculated by convections currents until it falls.
The term "rain shadow"refers to
B) dry regions on the leewardside of mountain ranges.
After a cold front passes, thetemperature __________ and the pressure __________ (relative to the conditionsthat existed prior to the passage of the front).
C) decreases; increases
In which of the following areaswill thunderstorms NOT develop?
D) under areas of strong highpressure
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