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The "Environmentalist's Paradox" is
As human material prosperity increases, ecosystem health decreases.
World population growth over the past 500 years has most resembled the letter
Which one of the following ecosystem services has been enhanced most by human use?
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment primarily characterized human impact on
The 2007 Assessment Report concluded that global climate change is caused at least in part by the
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere contributes to global warming by
If atmospheric carbon dioxide was eliminated from our atmosphere, we would expect that
the Earth would cool considerably and photosynthesis would dramatically decrease.
Which of the following is a correlation that is causing widespread concern?
As levels of carbon dioxide increase, average global temperatures are increasing.
Which of the following relationships is most likely to occur if global climate change policies are not enacted soon?
The wealthiest nations will contribute most to global climate change, yet the poorest people of the world will suffer most.
Examine the historical changes in carbon dioxide levels and global temperatures in these figures. Although carbon dioxide levels have climbed steadily over the past 50 years, global temperatures for the same period have been more erratic, increasing and decreasing, yet climbing overall. Which is the most reasonable hypothesis explaining why global temperatures are more erratic than carbon dioxide levels?
Carbon dioxide accumulates in the atmosphere while many factors affect global temperatures.
Which of the following is an example of the greatest cause of biodiversity loss in the world today?
In the United States, large fields once used to plant corn and soybeans are being converted for housing developments and commercial properties.
In 2013 most species in the world go extinct because
of loss of habitat.
Biodiversity is important because
it is necessary to maintain stability of ecosystems.
The source of the acidity blamed for killing Oregon oyster larvae was
acids released by natural decomposition of organic wastes.
The destruction of oyster larvae in Oregon aquaculture tanks was discovered to be caused by
increase in the acidity of sea water in which the larvae were incubated.
Which of the following is the most inclusive example of the environment?
a farmhouse, plowed fields, and a stand of old growth forest nearby
Which one of the following is least appropriate to the field of environmental science? Scientists
study X-ray emissions for evidence of black holes.
Which of the following terms best applies to the practice of environmental science?
integrative and interdisciplinary
The census of 1890 highlighted the "closing of the frontier," which coincided with
John Muir's conservation activities.
During the Great Depression, conservation
provided work and helped restore land
The greatest environmental problems of the 1950s mainly concerned
thousands of nuclear power plants that spread radiation across the globe.
In 1962, Rachel Carson published her book Silent Spring. Seven years later, in 1969, the Cuyahoga River again caught fire and gained national attention. Based upon the concerns she expressed in Silent Spring, which of the following would have been her most likely reaction to learning of the 1969 Cuyahoga River fire?
The river fires illustrate one of the many ways we are polluting our environment.
If rivers were catching fire today in 2012, what group would most likely be involved to investigate the situation and apply federal laws?
Environmental Protection Agency
The environmental movement was a grassroots initiative that
primarily addressed growing pollution of the environment.
Because of the modern environmental movement
average life expectancy for humans is longer.
Which of the following has been the most recent political response to efforts of the environmental movement?
increased efforts for deregulation
Which of the following is true today?
environmental policy debates are always politically divisive
Which of the following best illustrates the spirit of stewardship?
promoting the recycling of paper and aluminum on university campuses
Which of the following best illustrates sustainability?
converting automobiles from gasoline to natural gas as a new source of fuel
Which of the following best illustrates sound science?
measuring wind velocities to determine the cost-effectiveness of windmills in a region
46) Which one of the following terms least applies to science?
If seven students tell a zoologist that they saw Bigfoot while hiking in an Idaho forest the past weekend, an interested zoologist would most likely
conduct experiments to show that the students were probably mistaken.
Which of the following does not represent an important aspect of sound science?
accepts funding from an industry and tries to generate data to support their products to treat lung cancer.
Thousands of cases of lung cancer occur in a two-year period in a city outside of Kentucky, at rates that are double that seen in other cities in the United States. Scientists working in that region assume that
there is something peculiar to the region causing these unusually high rates.
All scientific investigations are initially founded upon
multiple hypotheses, some of which are unanswerable.
Which of the following best embodies the quality of a scientific theory?
All gases, liquids, and solids consist of atoms.
Examine the differences between the plant on the left and the plant on the right. Which of the following represents a scientifically acceptable hypothesis about these plants?
The plant on the left is taller and has more roots and needles because it has a root-fungus symbiosis missing on the plant on the right.
Scientists investigating a drug to cure a disease in birds conducted experiments. In these experiments, what were the controls?
birds that did not receive the drug being tested
What was the experimental variable in the above experiment?
Which field was the control group?
the west field
Which of the following is the most accurate conclusion about these results?
Pesticide Z is a good way to control most insect infestations on fields of corn, wheat, or oats
Some students on a biology field trip were sitting around watching honey bees. Some of the students noticed that bees spent more time on some flowers than on other flowers. As they talked about this behavior, the students offered various explanations. Some thought that the bees were avoiding predators on some flowers while other students suggested that some flowers may have sweeter nectar. These speculations about bee behavior are examples of
The confidence in a scientific theory is most related to
A) the number of grants received to study the subject. B) the reputation of the investigating scientists and their related universities. C) the amount of unbiased supporting evidence. D) the number of publications that discuss the subject in question.
Every scientific observation and test has demonstrated that
if theories are repeatedly tested, they can become hypotheses.
The scientific peer-review process ensures that
scientific studies have proper design and methods and are free from bias.
Excellent microscopes and telescopes are most commonly used to
extend our senses
All instruments used in scientific investigations must be
tested for accuracy OR. composed of all new material.
Which of the following best illustrates bias in scientific investigations?
Investigations of the health effects of smoking are funded and published by a tobacco company.
Subjective judgments about complex environmental phenomena often lead to
new legislation and government policies. OR a generation of new theories.
Compared to sound science, junk science
does not include bias or subjective values.
Which of the following best illustrates the sustainable use of a resource?
Huge windmills in Texas are able to capture 50% of the wind energy in a specific region.
Which one of the following sources of energy is most sustainable?
natural gas used to heat homes
The concept of sustainable development includes
the needs of future generations.
Sustainable solutions should
incorporate the concerns of economists, ecologists, and sociologists.
Which one of the following is least likely to be a product of a transition to a sustainable civilization?
larger cities with extensive suburbs
Which of the following types of pollution became much more common in the 20th century?
large-scale pollution in developing countries
As depicted in the film Contagion, isolated viral outbreaks can quickly become global threats if the virus is easily
transferred between people who then travel widely while infected.
The greatest public health concerns about the H5N1 bird flu virus, as recently highlighted in the potentially dangerous dual-use experiments, is that it will
spread from person to person.
Even if people cannot easily spread bird flu from person to person, how might bird flu virus spread in the world?
Migrating birds might spread the flu widely.
A recent study indicated that more than 60% of human pathogens are zoonotic, meaning that they
can be transmitted between animals and humans.
During a January storm in Vermont, a highway truck crashes and spills 3 tons of rock salt onto the side of the road, covering grasses and tumbling down to a creek. Learning about this accident, you wonder about the environmental consequences. This sort of salt naturally occurs in the soil. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's definition of pollution, this spill would be considered as a
nontoxic, non-polluting spill of a natural substance. OR. nutrient supplement, and no environmental harm is expected.
Which of the following is the least biodegradable?
polyethylene wrapper that was used to package Campbell's soup
Studying environmental biology has got you thinking about what you do with your kitchen wastes, the discarded egg shells, orange and banana peels, coffee grounds, etc. Living at the edge
of town, you have several options. Which of the following would be the least efficient (or slowest) way to allow natural decay of your kitchen wastes?
collecting your kitchen garbage in small plastic bags and disposing of it in a large city landfill
Biologists advising park rangers wondered how best to dispose of human wastes with the potential of transmitting diarrhea at remote camping sites along a turbulent river. Every year thousands of people canoe down the river and are required to stay at predetermined campsites. These remote locations are not accessible by road or any large boat. Which of the following strategies of managing human waste would have the least impact on the environment?
Require everyone to dig their own latrine and bury their own waste when they are done
People suffering from AIDS have a weakened immune system. Because of their disease, AIDS patients are
more vulnerable to bacteria, which are less of a risk to healthy people
Risk in environmental health is most related to
hazards multiplied by vulnerability.
The H1N1 swine flu pandemic of 2009-2010 resulted in the immunization of millions of people. When the immunizations were first available, people under 25 or over 65 were given priority. This was done because H1N1
these age groups were most vulnerable to the hazard, putting them at greatest risk.
In the winter in North America, the common cold often shows
high morbidity but low mortality. OR. low morbidity and low mortality.
The Centers for Disease Control employs many people who study epidemiology. These people might be interested in
identifying, tracking the spread of, and preventing infectious disease.
In the United States, if you are concerned about an infectious disease such as the bird flu, the most reliable source of information would be the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The concern about human-to-human transmission of bird flu is most closely monitored by
the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control.
Over the past 50 years, global life expectancy has
risen more than 20 years due to better health care and nutrition worldwide.
The causes of mortality differ greatly between developing and developed countries. In developing countries, a high proportion of mortality is caused by
infectious disease while in the developed world; most deaths are related to voluntary behaviors.
Which of the following is a good example of a cultural hazard to public health?
Air pollution near an oil refinery releases known carcinogens into the air.
Which of the following is a good example of a physical hazard to public health?
An earthquake kills more than 200,000 people in Haiti and destroys countless homes, roads and buildings
Which of the following is a good example of a biological hazard to public health?
Rotavirus infections lead to deadly diarrhea in more than a million children each year.
Which of the following is a good example of a chemical hazard to public health?
Before the switch to unleaded gas, children living near highways had high lead exposure.
This figure illustrates examples of environmental hazards related to
The fact that life expectancy has increased significantly over the past 60 years in developing nations is primarily a result of the
The infectious diseases that cause the greatest mortality in the world today are
acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS.
Which of the following is true or accurate about malaria?
Mosquito saliva transmits tiny sporozooites to the victim when they are bitten.
In the United States, we could save more lives if we simply
stopped smoking and reduced obesity.
The rise of tuberculosis in the past few decades is largely the result of
the evolution of antibiotic resistance and increases in HIV infections which compromise the immune system of victims.
More than anything else, the greatest adult mortality from infectious disease in the world can be traced to
The greatest risk of death from an infectious disease for people living in northern Eurasia and Africa is most likely
Which of the following natural threats to human health is least predictable, providing the least amount of lead time before the disaster strikes?
earthquakes, tsunamis, and tornados
Because many places that people build homes are at high risk of a physical disaster, some people have suggested that town zoning boards identify such high risk environments as "stupid zones." Which one of the following would probably not be located in such a "stupid zone"?
Along the coast of southern Florida, a retired couple builds their dream home on a barrier island.
Questions about the danger of a particular chemical hazard will relate to that chemical's
toxicity, exposure, and dose.
Some milk becomes contaminated with mercury. If each of the following people consume 16 ounces of this contaminated milk each day for a month, who will most likely be impacted by this poison?
an 82-year-old woman
A pharmacist asks a mother about a new prescription for an antibiotic, wanting to be sure that the drug is for the mother. The pharmacist is most likely concerned because
a normal dosage for an adult can be toxic to a child.
You learn that an old friend has died from a disease that resulted from their lifelong exposure to a substance. This loved one most likely died from
Which of the following products contains the greatest number of carcinogens?
Carcinogens' danger lies in their effect on
DNA molecules inside cells.
Developing countries are said to face double jeopardy for environmental hazards because of the threats of
infectious disease and increased exposure to toxic chemicals.
Industrial pollution from this oil refinery best represents a type of
chemical environmental hazard.
Which of the following is the best predictor of underweight of people of in a particular country?
the wealth or poverty of the country
A person who dies of a heart attack at the age of 93 is more likely to have lived in a
In general, countries that enjoy the best health have
good educational systems, particularly for women.
Around the world, the greatest health risk to children under the age of five, especially in low income families and nations is
According to the WHO, the greatest global root cause of risk of disease is
The most rapidly increasing cultural risk to health in most developing countries is
According to the CDC, approximately what fraction of Americans will die or become disabled because of smoking cigarettes?
2 in 10
Smoking is attributed to all of the following, except
malaria and tuberculosis.
Synergistic health risks are associated with a person who smokes and
works in a coal mine.
Since the 1960s in the United States, public policies and high taxes on cigarettes to discourage smoking have
decreased, and the number of adult smokers has dropped by about 20%.
Under the 2009 Tobacco Control Act, the FDA
can only regulate the way that cigarettes are packaged
Being exposed to secondhand smoke by living with a person who smokes
is now known to increase the chances of cancer of everyone in the home.
The FAO's MPOWER campaign and FCTC program are a global efforts to
reduce smoking primarily in developing countries.
Although all of the following have had positive effects, the most effective way to reduce smoking in children in the United States has been to
ban cigarette sales to people under the age of 18.
Mexico reduced deaths in children by 70% in less than a decade by
fighting dehydration from diarrhea with home hydration kits.
One of the greatest risks of diarrheal disease outbreaks in industrialized countries, for example, from Salmonella, results from
contamination in the mass production of food.
Malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever are most common in
countries located near the equator.
Treating malaria with drugs is difficult because
the malarial parasite has quickly evolved drug resistance.
The most effective antimalarial strategies involve the use of
DDT, bed nets, and quick access to drug treatment.
Lyme disease is a serious bacterial infection of humans caused by the bite of infected deer ticks. Therefore, the vector of Lyme disease is
The most effective way that malaria can be reduced in a region is using
vector control to prevent infections and treatment strategies for infections.
The people in this photograph are using
a bed net for mosquito vector control
Arriving at the hotel for the meeting, a woman decides to get a workout in the pool. Upon stepping into the pool area, she quickly finds it difficult to breathe because of the high levels of chlorine in the air above the pool. This woman is experiencing
an acute reaction to the chlorine in the air.
In the case of indoor air pollutants, increasing the insulation in a home will most likely
increase the chances of developing chronic respiratory diseases.
Health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries is most commonly associated with
the use of biofuels for cooking and heating.
Sweden represents a nation in which
women tend to marry late, enter the work force and have significant social and medical services.
Indonesia represents a nation in which
most people are subsistence farmers, poverty is widespread and both family size and child mortality are very high.
Burkina Faso represents a nation in which
many women are illiterate, marry early and have large families, partly because the infant mortality rate is very high.
Which of the following human traits are typical of K-strategists?
parental care of long duration
Which of the following is a uniquely human trait?
communication between members of a species
Unlike most species, human population ecology must also include consideration of the
interactions of the global human population. OR. impact of infectious disease on mortality.
About 30,000 years ago, humans survived most like which of the following organisms?
roaming groups of omnivorous chimps
The Neolithic Revolution is most clearly seen in human culture today in our use of
modern agriculture to raise food crops.
Which of the following was not a consequence of the Neolithic Revolution?
The development of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution made food
less of a limiting factor on population growth.
The rerouting of the Mississippi to increase the efficiency of movements of steamboats and barges was the result of the
Which problem today is primarily the result of the Industrial Revolution?
extensive air and water pollution
Which of the major revolutions was most associated with our increased ability to engage in modern warfare using guns and bombs?
The increased reliance upon raw materials from many parts of the world resulted from which revolution?
Better sanitation and nutrition generally resulted from the
Which revolution stimulated exponential growth of the human population?
At the mouth of the Mississippi River, large concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus flow into the Gulf of Mexico, causing nutrient overloading, algal blooms, and extremely low levels of oxygen. Which revolutions are most responsible for this problem?
Green Revolution and Industrial Revolution
The ability to feed the growing world population was addressed by the
Which revolutions relied most heavily on fossil fuels?
green Revolution and Industrial Revolution
Based upon the information presented in this figure, which of the following revolutions did not contribute to a sharp increase in human population
The total fertility rate was most significantly increased by the
An isolated village of about 1,000 people in a developing nation may be hunting and raising only enough crops to feed themselves. Such a village may have fewer than half their children surviving to adulthood. This struggling village primarily reflects the result of which revolution?
Which revolution may have the greatest impact on the future quality of life for people on Earth?
Name the two most recent of the revolutions affecting the global human population.
Green Revolution and Environmental Revolution
The epidemiologic transition is largely a result of the
the five main revolutions of human history have all resulted in
an increase in human carrying capacity.
Which of the following are current limiting factors for future human population growth?
pollution and land for agriculture
According to demographer Joel Cohen, the human carrying capacity
depends upon a standard of living
In a significant 2004 paper reviewing 69 studies on world human population and carrying capacity, the authors estimated that the sustainable carrying capacity of humans for the planet is about
According to the UN Population Division and a significant 2004 paper reviewing 69 studies on world human population and carrying capacity, the world population of humans will exceed carrying capacity in about the year
this photograph best represents the results of which three revolutions?
Neolithic Revolution, Industrial Revolution, and Green Revolution
Which of the following countries has the lowest percentages of people struggling to afford adequate food, shelter, and clothing?
Examine the map in this figure and identify which of the following regions represent the lowest combined levels of poverty?
North and South America
Population growth and fertility rates are lowest in
What does the replacement-level fertility rate include that is not part of the total fertility rate?
infant and childhood mortality
The greatest human population increases over the next few decades is expected to occur in
Both the IPAT and ImPACT formulas predict that the lowest environmental impact is expected in human populations living in
Citizens of the poorest countries may resent restrictions on carbon emissions imposed by wealthy countries because developed countries
have much higher fertility rates.
Using the IPAT or ImPACT formula, which of the following would most likely reduce the environmental impact of a society?
the discovery of large reserves of fossil fuels within a nation's borders. OR. Greater use of birth control by most members of society
In recent decades, as the wealth of the United States has increased, the quality of the
environment in the United States has
increased but at the expense of decreased environmental quality in poorer countries.
Although people living in the highest-density populations in urban areas generally live long,
healthy lives, global overpopulation remains a problem because
environmental impacts are not always experienced where resources are consumed
The amount of land and ocean needed to provide the resources for one person and absorb
his/her wastes defines the
The IPAT or ImPACT formula may be one way to estimate the
carrying capacity of a society.
The GINI index assesses
the relative economic disparity within nations
Using the GINI index, more than any other high-income country, the United States has
the lowest life expectancies, more people in prison, and more children in poverty.
Which of the following most illustrates environmental stewardship?
riding your bike to work instead of driving
Small subsistence farms in developing nations
had a sustainable use of the environment when populations were small. OR.
can support the developing populations at up to ten times their current population size.
In developing countries, pressure to increase agricultural productivity has resulted in
conversion of forests into agricultural fields.
When people in developing countries cannot produce enough food to eat, they commonly
start poaching. OR.
start raising drug-related crops.
Within only the past few decades the global trend has been for people
living in large cities to recycle most of their waste.
Thailand has experienced a dramatic drop in fertility rate, increased per capita income and an
increase in life expectancy between 1960 and 2005. These are all signs that Thailand
is in the grip of the poverty-population trap.
The social and economic changes in Thailand over the past 50 years have
slowed population growth significantly.
Thailand's prospects for addressing current environmental problems are
very good because air and water pollution have declined along with population growth.
Countries that have completed the demographic transition typically have
high rates of fertility and widespread use of modern medicine.
Countries that have completed or nearly completed the demographic transition experienced
the epidemiological transition and industrialization within the last decade
Countries caught in the poverty-population trap have experienced
the benefits of modern medicine but not the benefits of economic development.
Two conflicting approaches to helping countries through the demographic transition require
different types of aid. An attempt to provide aid using both approaches might include
investments in banks and distribution of birth control.
The most recent Cairo population conference in 1994 linked
poverty, population growth, and development.
The most recent Cairo population conference in 1994 found widespread agreement that the
greatest way to help developing countries was to
increase their use of modern medicine.
The 1994 Cairo population conference broadly agreed that slower population growth resulted
better health care, education, and employment for women.
How would we expect a Latin American country to change if it became industrialized and
significantly increased per capita income?
The red line would stay about the same, but the green line would rise to just below the red
Why is the green line lower in Latin America than it is in Sub-Saharan Africa?
Latin American communities have better use of modern medicine
Compared to countries still struggling to complete the demographic transition, countries that have gone through the demographic transition have
higher growth in per capita income and technology.
The 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development found that the greatest threats to
the health of the environment were
poverty, development, and population growth.
In general, as a country goes through the demographic transition, it experiences a
falling dependency ratio that increases the demographic dividend
A declining dependency ratio
requires increased spending on education but decreased costs associated with old-age medical
The window of opportunity presented by the demographic dividend generally ends as
people live longer.
In general, fertility rates
decrease as per capita income increases.
Large families in poor countries
are common, due largely because of low infant and childhood mortality
Increased availability of contraceptives in very poor nations is unlikely to decrease family
families depend upon children for labor and support when the parents become old
In general, as countries become more industrialized and developed
support of the elderly increases.
In general, high poverty produces
high fertility and greater environmental damage.
Examine the dependency ratio trends for the regions in this figure. The dependency ratio for
high-income countries has risen because
life-spans are longer following a demographic window.
Examine the relationships between poverty, environmental degradation, and fertility. We
would expect that increased industrialization and development would affect the poverty cycle by
decreasing the use of natural resources
Farmers suffering severe poverty often barely produce enough crops to survive. These
exist in a downward spiral of degraded land and reduced productivity.
Developing countries have increasingly become involved in the integrated global economy
primarily due to
increased use of vaccinations. OR.
increased use of technology.
A study is conducted to understand how some developing countries have made social and
economic progress. Which of the following would be a surprising finding in such a study?
decreased fertility rates. OR.
a decline in extreme poverty
Which of the following descriptions is most characteristic of the world's poorest people?
In a large city, a 12 year-old boy sits under a stack of tin he calls home, unable to read the
In general, which of the following would best help to reduce extreme poverty?
programs specifically targeted to bring the poorest nations into the development process. OR.
international efforts to promote economic growth in countries with the greatest poverty
The Millennium Development Goals focus on
matters of health, reducing the spread of disease, and promoting diet and nutrition.
Which of the following is an example of projects in line with Millennium Development
Goals expected to help address poverty in undeveloped countries?
Elementary schools start serving meals to students from families with the lowest incomes.
Which one of the following best illustrates a situation most likely to reduce extreme poverty?
All members of the poorest families over the age of 10 are provided with jobs on farms,
helping to provide food for all the impoverished members of their community.
The Millennium Development Goals were wide ranging, but did not specifically address
higher secondary and college education.
Which of the following activities would be consistent with the Millennium Development
provide meals and mosquito nets for every child under the age of five
If the Millennium Development goal to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015 is
no continent will have more than 10,000 people still hungry.
Which of the following represents the Millennium Development Goal that is least likely to
universal primary education
Which of the following affects the greatest number of people in the developing world?
water availability. OR. Inadequate sanitation.
The lowest-income countries will need to address the Millennium Development Goals by
costs shared equally between domestic sources and wealthy donor countries
Which of the following is something the World Bank might do?
lend money to governments of developing countries for a variety of projects
The World Bank is
the largest agency providing aid to developing countries
In recent years, the World Bank has
changed its mission to fighting poverty
The latest strategic theme of the World Bank is best summarized as
plenty amidst poverty. OR.
development with environmental sustainability.
The World Bank's new direction addresses the intersection of which three concerns in
medical, educational, and environmental factors
Which of the following analogies best illustrates the credit-debt trap?
A country must refinance a loan from 10 to 30 years to be able to make payments
Which of the following illustrate the liquidation of ecosystem capital by a developing
All of the above.
Which of the following is an expected outcome of debt relief in developing nations?
increased spending on health and more children going to school
Most recently, the official development assistance of the United States government
combined with all US private philanthropy, was less than 1.0 % of GNI.
How are developing countries likely affected by the most recent global economic crisis?
Developing countries may experience decreasing GNI.
It is clear that for Haitian aid and remittances,
Haitians receive more support from remittance than from other nations.
Immigrants who maintain ties to their native countries
send much of their money home as remittances
Economic growth in China has led to extensive air and water pollution because of
inadequately enforced environmental protection policies
Which of the following most accurately indicates the recent changes that have occurred in
China? As the Chinese economy has grown,
industrial pollution and literacy have increased while poverty and public health have declined.
In response to environmental problems, the Chinese government has
increasingly relied upon local, non-governmental groups to monitor and respond.
Which of the following is least associated with economics?
Studying the sky, a child looks for faces in the clouds.
We would expect that in a community with mounting air and water pollution problems, the
economy of the region would decline. OR. health care would become less important.
Rising per capita income is associated with
increased risks of respiratory disease.
In general, problems caused by economic activities are
addressed by laws and public policies.
In the classical view of economic activity, households
consume goods and services.
In the classical view of economic activity in this figure, if the number of households in a
the demands for labor will increase.
In the classical view of economic activity in this figure, we expect businesses to prosper
labor costs are low and household incomes rise.
The recent rise of the Chinese economy is associated with
a switch to free-market policies.
In general, centrally planned economies are run to promote the
interests of society, while free-market economies depend on the self-interests of individuals
Centrally planned and free-market economies both
represent ideals not found in pure form in any country.
In a free-market society,
the interests of the poor, labor and business are the same.
The World Trade Organization
is widely recognized as the leader of global trade regulation
The best hope for the future global economy and environmental policy depends upon
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