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Drought resistant brush
found in far north and far south Afica
cold, treeless climate zone
the deliberate efforts to separate or divide of two cultures
in Ireland it was to separate the Irish Protestants and Catholics
loose political union
many German states merged into a single condereration
most often found in rural areas of less developed countries
families produce goods and service for their own use.
identify places that have:
1. similar characteristics, or
2. close connections
1. ways people live, work and play
2. political orientation
3. physical features like landforms, climate and vegetation
beautiful landscape, craggy coast of Maine, New York's spectacular Niagara Falls, or rolling farmlands of Pennsylvania.
unique combination of precipitation, type of soil, and varieties of trees
Few natural resources.
The rocky soils and , steep hills are a challenge to the farmers.
Pennsylvania is a coal-rich area.
Water has made the area a major center for trade, commerce and industry.
Thriving fishing industry.
Why did the Northeast become a leader in industry?
Abundant precipitation and hilly terrain leads to swift flowing rivers. The power of the rivers were converted into machine power.
Factories popped up along the rivers.
By 1900 the region was the most productive manufacturing region in the US.
a very large city with a high population. Often where several cities have grown together. Example: Boston and New York and Washington DC
Harbors of international trade led to increase in manufacturing and available jobs. People immigrated from Europe for those jobs.
Today 1/7 of the US population is in this region.
Reduced supply of water and facilities for waste disposal.
Decline in population which has
led to higher taxes.
Humid, subtropical climate
Lush, mixed forests
The warm, wet climate produces thick, mixed forests of tress.
Yes. Parts of the region are very unproductive sites for farming and industry has not located there.
Appalachia is one of the poorest areas in the US,
It is the place where rivers and streams form waterfalls and rapids as they descend from plateau to costal plain.
Many cities popped up along the fall line.
The industrial plants were newer, in better condition and more efficient.
New factories could be built on that that was cheaper than the land in the megalopolis of the Northeast.
Labor unions were less common so labor costs were lower.
Enormous growth in tourism.
Large increase of the number of people retiring in that regions.
Agriculture, manufacturing and transportation form the backbone of the Midwestern economy
The organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms.
Dark-colored organic material
The nations breadbasket
The high wheat output of the region.
In the past, who ran most of the farms?
Who runs them now?
American families owned and operated the early farms with lots of manual labor.
Now large businesses own them, involving fewer people and more machinery.
Invention of the reaper that allowed a machine to harvest vast amounts of wheat in less time.
More mechanization led to few workers.
Lower wages have driven workers to higher paying jobs.
the world's busiest market for the exchange of eggs, hogs, cattle, and other farm products
heavy manufacturing including:
1. iron ore production
2. coal production
access to minerals led to steel mills;
the steel mills led to auto plants
Railroads - moves grain, cattle, steel and cars throughout the US
Rivers - especially the Mississippi River, help to move tons of goods along the river system
new businesses that supported the gold rush
states from Texas to the Dakotas
Drought in the 1930s
The price dropped to a dollar so many people moved West.
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
smallest of all regions
only 5% of Canada's land
only 8% of it's people
Thousands of lakes and ponds
Coasts of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia was once the world's richest fishing area. Overfishing depleted the fish supply.
Forestry and farming are also important.
Tourism is growing due to beautiful landscape.
Offshore oil discovers is driving the oil industry.
1. Canadian Shield
2. Hudson Bay Lowlands
3. St. Lawrence Lowlands
Large system of waterways. St. Lawrence River is called Canada's highway to the sea.
Rich soil and abundant mineral resources.
Capital of Canada is?
Where is it located?
Located in southeastern Ontario
Largest in terms of area
Large area of exposed bedrock covering 4/5 of the province
Most of area is wilderness
new to the area is manufacturing and service jobs
All located in southwestern Canada
rolling fields of wheat
cool lakes and lazy rivers
badlands of strange eroded sand and rock formations
half of people live in cities
lots of railroad lines move grain and people around
Most of Canada's grain and cattle come from this area
Tourism is important
New discovery of oil and natural gas is driving wealth in the region
more than 4/5 of residents live in Vancouver. the largest city in the province
one of Canada's wealthiest provinces
capital is Victoria
Nunavut (the newest one established in 1999)
fewer than 1% of Canada's population live hee
What do the native people of the Northern Territories call themselves?
What does it mean?
means "the people"
rich deposit of minerals
large reserves of oil and natural gase
great differences among provinces and territories
great differences among people
most people identify more strongly to their region and ethnic group than to the nation as a whole
in 1600s, Europeans colonized in the area
French and English colonist.
British troops defeated French in 1759
Britain assumed control over the entire region
1867 - Canada got it's own government but had British military and foreign policy
1931 - Canada become completely independent country
Where do most of the French speaking Canadians live?
1974 - made French the official language of the province
1995 - tried to secede from the rest of Canada
Natural Resources - balancing the use of resources with the need to preserve the environment
Urbanization - 77% of the population live in cities creating a challenge for housing, services and preventing overcrowding
People living along the border share radio and TV programing
Professional baseball and hockey leagues include people from both countries
Canada buys 25% of US exports
US buys 85% of Canadian exports
Free Trade Agreement
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)?
An expansion of the Free Trade Zone to include Mexico.
Designed to establish a free trade zone across all of North America
A group of countries, mainly former British colonies.
They work together to promote better trade, health and education.
Canada is a member
one that conquers;
Spanish explores who came from Europe to conquest America and especially Mexico and Peru in the 16th century
Latin American military strongman
local military rulers
fertile plains region in southern South America located mainly in Argentina and Urugray
large group of islands
The Bahama archipelago includes 700 islands northeast of cuba
along both sides of the river stretches a wide tropical grassland, or savanna, called llanos
the landscape on the ground below the tropical rain forest
forested tropical lowlands
period of rebirth when Western Europeans rediscovered the knowledge of ancient Greeks and Romans
this led to new advances in science and technology
winds that blow across warm current s
the constant flow of air from west to east in the temperate zones of the earth
broad, treeless rolling plains
the Highlands are covered with these
a spongy material containing waterlogged mosses and plants
1/6 of Ireland is covered in this
any disease that destroys plants
Ireland had a potato famine due to blight
variations of a language that are unique to a certain geographical region or community
they have their own grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary.
transferring major business from private ownership (owned by citizens) to state ownership or control
desire of a culture group to rule themselves
the act or process of making amends
Germany had to pay for war damages they caused during WWI
Land created by the dutch by encircling a piece of land with dikes and then pumping the water out into the canals
transfer power to smaller regions
one who does not take sides in a war
Switzerland is this type of country
central point of concentrated activity and influence
Madrid was this for Spain
Describes water that is deep and side enough to allow ships to pass and for save travel
Italy's flatland experiences this activity
earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
a geological phenomenon in which the ground in an area sinks
Venice faces this problem
marine west coast ***
marine west coast
Low interest rates because of price stability & having a single monetary policy
More price transparency which is good for because people can compare prices to buy from the cheapest supplier
No transaction costs from many different currencies
No exchange rate fluctuations which keep prices more stable and lower
sandy soil and cold winters
long and cold winters
Plant/animal life - treeless area, only small plants and fur animals
Economic uses - limited fur
Plant/animal life - forests, wide variety of animals
Economic uses - lumbering, forestry
Plant/animal life - grasslands
Economic uses - agriculture
a variant on the title Caesar
people who lived of the serfdom system
a person in the past who belonged to a low social class and who lived and worked on land owned by another person
the Soviet System
the cold war
struggle in which the Soviet Union competed for power with the US
It was 'cold' because the two superpowers never faced each other directly in a 'hot' military conflict.
20% ethnic minorities
The Chechens (people of Chechnya) are an ethnic minority that declared independence from Russia in _____.
How do you know that they have not been successful?
The Russians invaded them
climate - subtropical
winter temp - warm
rainfall - heavy
crops - grapes, citrus, tobacco, tea
climate - continental
winter temp - cold
rainfall - less
crops - grains, vegetables
water pollution in rivers and the Caspian Sea
air pollution from industry
soil pollution from overusing pesticides and fertilizers
The Aral Sea is drying
There is increased desertification
Pollution is caused by overuse of pesticides and fertilizers
What organization created the state of Israel?
mosquito infested swamps
Democracy or parliamentary democracy
an armed uprising of Palestinians against Israel occupation of West Bank and Gaza Strip
arc of rich land
where farming and the first civilizations developed
state of lawlessness
condition of no government
Devastating blow to economy - due to the lost of East Jerusalem and the West Bank
Greek Orthodox Christians
Enormous stretch of sand
250,000 square miles
What is the Rub al-Khali?
How big is it?
Kuwait Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates (UAE)
to decide how much oil to produce and at what price to sell it
to decrease the influence of Western oil companies on their countries
Greek Orthodox Christians
region in Africa just south of the Sahara Desert
there was a growing salt and gold trade after A.D. 1000. This trade gave rise to the empires of Ghana, Mali and others.
A political and economic system based on the exploitation by a stronger country of a weaker one, and the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country
subjected African people to the foreign rule of Europe
In the 1800s European powers divided Africa into these
stretches northward from Mozambique to Ethopia
densely populated regions that include cities and the suburbs that surround them
economic activities center on manufacturing and service industries
caused by overgrazing by livestock
it's a reduction in the productive potential of the land
Nile River valley and delta
98% of the country's population is in this 3% area
Ethopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Brundi
Lesotho and Swaziland
Great Rift Valley
most people are still farmers
good for crops
kept soil fertile
not usable year round
sometimes flooding is destructive
water year round
farmers must use chemical fertilizers
soil becomes salty
little number of skilled workers
no extra money to invest
market areas in North Africa medinas that are lined with shops and workrooms
water resources for farming
iron, bauxite and copper sold to buy food
selling jewelry and wooden carvings
developed a democracy
access to the sea
large amount of debt
few exported items