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Globalization and Diversity: Geography of a Changing World (3rd Edition)
the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through the converging processes of economic, political, and cultural change
Example: speed has increased since WW2
Converging Currents of Globalization
-Communications and transportation
-Economic transformation (multinational corporations, financial institutions, global free-trade agreements, market economies and privatization, global markets)
Multi national corporations
more mobility of economic activity can take place, more interconnectedness -- if the economy is down in USA they can produce things for cheaper else where
Global Free-Trade Agreements
try to lower costa and encourage more trade between countries
Example: NAFTA: north american free trade agreement): North America, Mexico and Canada to promote globalization between countries
Global Consumer Culture
may erode local diversity and cause tension between traditional cultures and external globalizing influences ( more exotic product supplanting the local product -- i.e. McDonalds in China)
ex. film, clothing style
occurs when American culture spreads abroad and molds with local cultural traditions
The Geopolitical Component of Globalization
United Nations provides representation to all countries
International agreements PROMOTE global trade and cultural exchange
Environmental Concerns of Globalization
-transnational corporations disrupts local ecosystems
-native people lose resource base (ex. Caribbean- no local food production)
-climate change, air and water pollution, deforestation (ex. Tableau island starting to sink because of other countries giving off emissions)
Positive/ Negative Externality
gain/loss that you get due to the actions of somebody else
Possible solution for Environmental Concerns
Social Dimensions of Globalization
(drug cartels, gambling, terrorism, prostitution)
Advantages of Globalization *Pro-Globalization Stance*
-expression of capitalism (growth due to population and profit)
-removal of trade barriers -- faster spread of new ideas, technology, and increased efficiency
-free flow of capital --> enhance overall global economic wealth
-helps poorer countries grow, improve the lives of citizens
Disadvantages of Globalization
-todays core, developed countries did not use free-market economic model to foster their own development
-creation of greater inequalities (poorer countries poorer, richer countries richer)
-free-market, export- oriented economics come at the expense of the locals
-spreads diseases, crime, harmful flora and fauna
-globalization is unavoidable but should be managed
-SOLUTIONS: strong and efficient governments, international organizations, and watchdog groups (make sure benefits outweigh negatives)
-Ex. France (subsidiz
how evenly income is distributed throughout a population
since 1960- GINI has been increasing (*more inequality)
-High: Latin America, Africa
-Medium: US, Asia, Australia,
-Lowest Europe, Canada, Eastern Europe (more equally poor)
a product and expression of globalization
9/11 terrorist attacks were not attached to a nationalist or regional geopolitical aspiration to achieve independence or autonomy
the terrorist groups don't have the same military power as the countries do, they use guerilla tactics and lower level technology
a political unit with territorial boundaries recognized by other countries
-internal pressures can lead to the demise of the state
-Kosobo: not recognized as a state by Russia
refers to a cultural group of people with a similar language and religion (ex. Native American tribes - the Arawak Nation)
# of people on Earth
6.5 Billion People
How many people are born each year?
137 million born each year (16,000 each hour)
Where is the population growth occurring?
90% of population growth in developing regions (Africa, Latin America, South Asia, East Asia)
-due to migration, different family approaches,
-greatest international migration in human history is occurring NOW
Arab nation is spread over a number of states
Nations without States
Kurds (largest nation without a state)
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)
annual growth rate for a country or region as a percentage increase; world RNI is 1.2% per year
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
total number of births divided by the total population; world CBR is 21 per 1,000
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
total number of deaths divided by the total population; world CDR is 9 per 1,000
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
the average number of children born by statistically average woman (world average is 2.7; for Europe it's 1.4; for Africa it's 5.1)
average length of life; world average is 67; for Africa it's 52; for Japan it's 82
show the gender and percentage of a population in each age group
-rapid growth (nigeria)
-slow growth (US)
-negative growth (germany)
The demographic transition
State 1: Preindustrial: Birth Rate and Death Rate high, low to no population growth
State 2: Transitional: DR drops due to improved food supply and sanitation; population rises
State 3: Transitional; BR drops due to urbanization, education; population rises
Stage 4: Industrial; DR and BR are low; low to no population growth, population is high
What percent of the total world population are migrants?
3% due to the global economy with push and pull factors
Migration Patterns- Push Factors:
negative conditions that drive people FROM a location
cultural oppression, war, unemployment, natural disasters (famine, destruction like Hurricane Katrina)
Migration Patterns- Pull Factors:
favorable conditions at a destination that attract people
examples: job opportunity, economic opportunity, freedom, good climate
families, friends, and sometimes employers that connect migrants from their origins to their destination
What is the focal point of the modern globalizing world?
i.e: Mexico City and Sao Paolo (Brazil) have more than 20 million residents, add 10,000 each week, expected to double in the next 15 years
percentage of a country's people who live in cities
What is the average percent of the world's populations that live in cities?
developed areas - 75% urbanized
developing areas: lower than 50%
illegal developments of makeshift housing
urban population grows faster than growth in infrastructure (can't house and accommodate everyone)
Learned (NOT innate), shared behavior that includes abstract elements like language and religion and material elements like architecture and technology
active promotion of one's cultural system over another - acculturation
(same as cultural imperialism) active promotion of one's cultural system over another
the process of defending a cultural system against offensive cultural expression while at the same time promoting local or national values
cultural syncretism or hybridization
the blending of elements of cultures to form a new culture
when an immigrant adopts the culture of his/her destination
What is the best characteristic that defines cultural groups?
a distinctive form of language associated with a specific region (ex. American and British English)
a third language that is adopted by people from different cultural groups within a country who cannot speak each other's language (ex. Swahili in Africa or English in India)
Was there more lingual diversity in the new or old world?
attempts to appeal to all people regardless of location or culture (ex. Christianity with 2 billion, Islam with 1.2 billion, Buddhism)
identified closely with a specific ethnic group; does not actively seek converts (ex. judaism, hinduism with 850 million in India)
exists when people consider themselves to be non-religious or outright atheistic (about 1 billion)
the differences between a superpower's military technology and stategy and the lower level technology and decentralized guerilla tactics used by Al Qaueda and the Taliban
the close link between geography and political activity
-focuses on the interaction between power, territory and space at all scales
-a political unit with territorial boundaries
-recognized by other countries
-internally governed by an organizational structure
a large group of people who share many cultural elements (ex. language, religion, cultural identity) and
as a single political community
a relatively homogenous (similar) cultural group with its own fully independent political territory (ex. Japan, France)
-Kurds are a nation without a state
What is the largest nation without a state?
cultural and political forces acting to WEAKEN or DIVIDE an existing state
forces that promote political unity and reinforce the state structure
Examples of Centrifugal forces
linguistic minority status, ethnic separation, territorial autonomy, disparities in income and well-being
Examples of Centripetal forces
shared sense of history, need for military security, overarching economic structure, national symbol
formal establishment of rule over a foreign population
-peak of 1914, eve of WW1
the process of a colony's gaining (or regaining) control over its territory and establishing a separate independent government
-peak after WW2
Economic development brings increased prosperity to...
individuals, regions, and nation-states
-measures more and less developed countries
-economic core in northern hemisphere: US, Canada, western Europe, and Japan
-areas in the south make up less-developed periphery
qualitative and quantitative measures that indicate structural changes, how well off we are/ if we are getting "better" economically, socially, etc
Measuring Economic Wealth: GNI
Gross National Income, the value of all final goods and services produced within a country plus net income from abroad
GNI per capita
dividing the GNI by a country's population to get the income on average per person
indicators of social development
how society is using wealth
-mortality rate under 5 (represents food availability and healthcare)
-adult literacy rates (related to economic development, birthrates)
globalization is driving...
a fundamental reorganization of economies and cultures through:
-trade agreements (World Trade Organization)
-supranational organizations (United Nations-power that transcends boundaries)
How does climate link us together in our globalized economy?
opportunities, hardships, challenges in growing food
short-term, day-to-day expression of atmospheric processes
Where is the lowest human development index?
Where is the highest human development index?
europe and north america
long-term, average conditions
-at least 30 years of daily weather data (temperatures and precipitation)
boundaries drawn around areas with similar average climate conditions (don't have to be in the same part of the world)
Why does precipitation occur unevenly over earth?
due to the uneven distribution of energy and water bodies
-there is more rainfall in tropical zones
What does precipitation result from?
convectional uplift (dominates near the equator)
orographic uplift (movement of air over mountain ranges)
cyclonic uplift (passage of cold and warm fronts - US)
Temperature and Latitude
temperature often depends on latitude
-near the equator there is high solar energy - higher temps.
-elevation- higher up= colder
-land vs. water (warmer in summer, colder in winter)
provide average high and low temperatures and precipitation for every month in a year
-average high temperature (upper line)
-average low temperature (lower line)
-average precipitation (bars)
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