GEOGRAPHY NOTES August 20, 2009 CHAPTER 1: Why study Geography? Learn where places are, how to pronounce things. What is Geography? Study of the Earth s surface and the human and physical processes that shape it. Three Branches of Geography: Physical Human Technical Examples: Hydrology, climatology, biogeography, geomorphology, meteorology, pedology, social, cultural, economic, behavioral, political, and urban geography. Key Questions in Geography: Where is it located? ? Why is it located there? How did it get there? 5 Themes of Geography: Location Absolute: Latitude and Longitude Physical Address Relative: Landmarks Place Physical Characteristics: Landforms and Bodies of Water Climate Hazards Flora and fauna Human Characteristics: Politics Religion Culture Language Ethnicity Economics Urban Form Human-Environment Interaction Humans adapt to the environment Clothing Humans modify the environment to their needs Housing Levees and Dams Movement People Conflation of time and space Goods Farm to market distance Ideas High speed communications Region Formal: Examples: Ethnic Groups Funcional Examples: Service areas, political boundaries Vernacular Cartography Scale Map scale Detail Small scale map: smaller amount of details (shows larger area) Large scale map: larger amount of details (shows smaller area) Required Elements of a Map Title Scale Northing system Legend Neatline Ancillary Data Name and Date Coordinate Systems Latitude Runs east and west Measures distance north and south of equator Major lines: equator, arctic circle, antarctic circle, tropic of capricorn, tropic of cancer Longitude: Runs north and wouth Measures distance east and west of Prime Meridian Major lines: Prime Meridian, International Date Line
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