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faulting and earthquake generation holding that, as the crustal blocks on either side of a fault are deformed by tectonic forces, they remain locked in place by friction, accumulating elastic strain energy, until they fracture and rebound to their undeformed state. stress on rocks builds up over time as a result of plate movements. Earthquakes occur when that stress exceeds rock strength. Rocks under stress deform elastically, then rebound when an earthquake occurs.
The point at which fault slipping begins is the focus of an earthquake. The epicenter is the geographic point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus.
Which type of seismic waves arrives at a seismograph first? Know the differences between S waves, P waves, surface waves, compressional waves, shear waves, tsunami waves, Love waves
The energy released as seismic waves increases even more with earthquake magnitude, by a factor of about 32 for each magnitude unit. A magnitude 8 earthquake releases 32 × 32, or about 1000, times the energy of a magnitude 6 earthquake.
·Shallow, intermediate, and deep earthquakes occur at which types of plate boundaries? Along which type of plate boundary(-ies) do the largest earthquakes occur?
Shallowintermediate earthquakes occur at divergent plate boundaries. The largest earthquakes occur at convergent.
What type of faulting (normal, reverse, strike-slip) would occur at a mid-ocean ridge, at a subduction zone, along a transform fault?
How are tsunamis generated? (can they occur above and below sea level? How?)
a large earthquake that occurs beneath the ocean that generates a destructive sea wave. Yes, because it pushes the deep sea trench upward.
Why is the average elevation of the continents higher than the average elevation of the seafloor?Term
isostasy-relates the elevations of continents and oceans to the densities of crustal and mantle rocks. based on Archimedes’ principle, which states that the weight of a ﬂ oating solid is equal to the weight of the ﬂ uid it displaces.
What is the average thickness of the lithosphere?
How does the earth’s magnetic field act as a shield?
removal of sediments by natural processes (i.e. wind or rivers)
Different types of CHEMICAL weathering
1. oxidation (oxygen+earth minerals)
2. hydrolysis (minerals+water)
3. hydration (absorption of water)
4. carbonic acid action (CO2+water)
Different types of PHYSICAL weathering
1. thermal stress (expansion/contraction due to temperature)
2. frost (freezing/thawing)
3. pressure release (overlying materials removed, causing underneath materials to expand)
Different types of PHYSICAL weathering (part 2)
4. hydraulic action- water rushes into cracks in rock, compressing and weakening)
5. salt-crystal growth (disintegration of rocks)
6. biological (living organisms)
mass movement is triggered by ___________
downslope movement of masses of soil, rock, mud, etc under the force of gravity
GRAVITY must be GREATER than the strength of the slope materials
Vegetated soils can be MORE unstable because they can be oversteepened
**the greater the cohesion, the greater the resistance to movement**
Can a human outrun 1) slump 2) debris flow 3)debris avalanche 4)earth flow 5) soil creep?
What process can be triggered by submarine slides?
all the places that water is stored in and on the Earth
Reservoirs with the greatest volume
1. Lake Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia)
2. Bratsk Reservoir (Russia)
What is the hydrologic cycle and what drives it?
2. infiltration & runoff
3. evaporation, transpiration and sublimation
4. groundwater flow
areas of low precipitation on their downward slopes
Rain shadow effect (precipitation difference)
Humid winds rising over high mountains cool and pricpate on the WINDWARD slopes-->lose much of moisture by the time they reach other side--->air warms again-->humidity declines, precipitation chance declines
What is the average annual precipitation in Phoenix, AZ?
In the U.S., what percentage of the original wetlands has been destroyed?
most urban areas have lost more than 90%
How can wetlands be beneficial to humans?
"biological supermarkets"--natural products (including food), water filtration, flood control, decrease of erosion
impermeable rock formations--no groundwater flow at all, or extremely slow flow
rock formations through which groundwater flows in sufficient quantity to supply wells
If you were given seismic tomographic images (showing a cross-section of the Earth), how deep would you see the subducting slabs extend (e.g., to the core-mantle boundary? If not, where?)?
streams that recharge groundwater
Soil that is completely filled with water
Soil in shallow depths that still has some air in it (not all water)
Boundary between saturated and unsaturated zones in the ground
% of soil's total volume that is taken up by pores
In an aquifer, what is the relationship between amount of discharge, recharge and the rise or fall of the groundwater table?
*the level of the groundwater is the same as the HEIGHT of the water table
*is RECHARGED by precipitation, where rainwater travels down to and through aquifer underground
*when RECHARGE=DISCHARGE, groundwater remains constant (enough rainfall to=runoff
What types of rock do caves and karst features dominantly form in?
Limestone (via dissolution)
What is the minimum amount (volume) of water that you must drink per day to survive at room temp conditions in the shade?
Correlations of seismic wave velocities with rock types have made it possible to use seismic waves to explore the composition of Earth’s interior
What is the climate system? Describe and define it.
What is the cause of the greenhouse effect?
Because of the heat trapped by greenhouse
gases, the amount of energy transported away from Earth’s
surface, both by radiation and by the ﬂ ow of warm air and
moisture from the surface, is signiﬁ cantly larger than the
amount Earth receives as direct solar radiation.
After solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth’s ground surface, in what form of electromagnetic radiation is it re-emitted back towards the atmosphere and space?
Earthward infrared radiation AKA "back radiation"
List and describe the different ways in which carbon is removed from the Earth’s atmosphere. Which processes add carbon to the atmosphere? Which of these processes has dramatically changed the global carbon cycle in the last century and a half?Term
What drives eolian processes?
· What types of anthropogenic processes enhances the amount of dust in the atmosphere? What processes remove dust from the atmosphere?
· Know the differences between pediment, playa, and loess with respect to the formation processes of each.
· What percent of the Earth’s surface is dominated by arid regions?
· What are the causes of desertification?
· What causes the most erosion in a desert? Where do most of the world’s deserts occur?
Know the differences between continental slope, continental shelf, continental rise, and abyssal plains, and the topographic relationship between these features?
· How deep can the ocean be? State this in kilometers.
· What types of rock formation features would one see on the deep sea floor?
· If you could see the full range of varieties of topographic profiles taken across the sea floor of the Atlantic Ocean, which ocean floor feature would you not find?
· What drives surface ocean waves? What factor drives the ebb and flow of ocean tide? What drives glacial flow?
· What is a tsunami?
· What can a hurricane do to near-shore waters that can lead to great destruction?
· What is meant by a “sand budget” with respect to a beach? How is a sand budget determined? (Hint: This is a sediment budget for a beach.)
· How has sea level changed over the last 100 years? How many cm of change?
· What percent of the Earth’s land surface is covered by glacial ice?
· Why are the Earth’s poles colder than the equatorial region?
· How much of the land surface is permanently frozen? What is this type of surface called?
· During an ice age, what happens to sea level compared to an interglacial period? When did the last ice age end?
· What area glacial striations, glacial till, moraines, eskers?
· In valley glaciers, where is the flow the fastest?
· Know the definitions of relief, topography, elevation, contour.
· If erosion rates are a function of relief and elevation, what conditions will result in the highest erosion rates? The balance of what two processes result in elevation? How do these two processes relate to result in dynamic equilibrium?
· What is the current human population of the earth?
· Define and what the meaning of sustainable development.
· Besides increased incidences of cataracts, what other effect(s) can excessive exposures to UV (ultraviolet) radiation have?
· What are some examples of renewable and non-renewable energy resources?
· Per person, how many times more energy does an average person living in the United States consume compared to the global average?
· At the current production rate of oil, over what period of time will all known oil reserves become depleted? Therefore, is the use of oil and at this rate, sustainable?
· In the past three decades, the number of very strong hurricanes has increase by how many %?
· What percent of all electrical energy produced in the United States is generated from nuclear power plants?
· Of the energy produced in the United States today, solar energy accounts for roughly 1%, 30% or 50%?
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