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describes the dynamic transitions through geologic time among the three main rock types: sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous.
a highly viscous layer between the crust and the outer core
an underwater mountain system that consists of various mountain ranges, typically having a valley known as a rift running along its spine, formed by plate tectonics.
a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal in either sinistral or dextral direction
the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate, sinking into the Earth's mantle, as the plates converge
The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. The hydrologic cycle involves the exchange of heat energy, which leads to temperature changes
a graph that shows the proportion of land area that exists at various elevations by plotting relative area against relative height. Two maxima of frequencies: 100-meter and the 4,700-meter elevations
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table
each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei and differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; a radioactive form of an element.
mass per unit volume
type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds are formed between a cation, which is usually a metal, and an anion, which is usually a nonmetal
a fundamental structural unit consists of a silicon cation surrounded by four oxygen anions, giving it four negative charges
form a single configuration of silicon atoms and include the pyroxenes
Ice and quartz
an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2 or a chemical compound formally containing an oxygen in this state
Quartz and feldspar
a three dimensional configuration of its atoms with minerals
a class of minerals containing sulfide (S2−) as the major anion
the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite structural planes
Mauna Loa [Hawaii]
a horizontal filling of rock relative to rock layering
explains why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another
an umbrella term for the various processes by which magmas undergo bulk chemical change during the partial melting process, cooling, emplacement or eruption.
shows the boundary of temperature and pressure beyond which rock melts
the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior
The top portion of the upper mantle
1) Pressure release fracturing (unloading)
2) Frost wedging
4) Organic Activity
5) Thermal expansion and contraction
Caused when overlying material is removed (pressure is
released) and intrusive igneous rock expands.
Caused when water seeps into cracks, freezes (expands),
widens crack, more water gets in, etc. Typically a daily
cycle, though may be seasonal.
Caused by friction and impacts when water/wind/ice
carrying debris passes by another material
Caused when plants grow and expand within cracks
Caused by heating and cooling of rocks. Forms
microcracks in which other weathering processes cantake place (frost wedging, organic activity, etc.).
the dissolving of rocks or
minerals in the presence of water (usually Halite or
Limestone). Rocks dissolving
Alteration of a mineral into
another mineral in the presence of water:
(Feldspar mineral ==> Clay).
Soils may be residual (if the material has formed essentially in place)
or transported (if material was transported and then modified as a soil)
1) Climate—temperature, water
2) Topography—Water runs off. Regolith removed.
3) Parent Material—Some rocks weather easier
4) Maturity—How long weathering happens
5) Organic Processes—How much vegitation
used to interpretpart or all of a soils history
A--Organic and Mineral
E--Almost all mineral material
B--All Mineral material
Well drained soils are aerated (good air circulation,
which is beneficial to root systems), and iron is oxidized, ie., rusts (red).
1. soil erosion or excessive leaching (common in deforested areas),
2. interruption of natural processes such as flooding (which deposits fertile
material on a flood plain) by dams and other flood control devices, or
3. continued use of pesticides which may alter or damage soil organisms
Surface Water (streams): Hydraulic action,
dissolution, abrasion by saltation/suspended debris
Underground Water: Dissolution (karst)
Glaciers: Abrasion (from debris in ice),
Wind: Abrasion by saltation/suspended debris
Waves: Hydraulic action, abrasion bysaltation/suspended debris
Rate of Movement:
Fast -- (see next slide)
Slow – Creep, Solifluction
Method of Motion:
Fall -- sudden vertical drop of material
Slide -- rapid displacement of mass downslope
Flow -- flowing where pores filled with water/air
Type of Material Involved:
Rock -- Bedrock
Debris -- Bedrock and/or Regolith
Mud -- Fine-grained Regolith only: Collapse of over-steep slopes
A theory in which the lithosphere is divided into a number of “plates” whose pattern of horizontal movement is that of rigid bodies that interact with one another at their boundaries, causing seismic, volcanic, and tectonic activity along these boundaries.
1) Continental Crust -- thick and light (granitic)
2) Oceanic Crust -- thin and dense (basaltic)
world’s oceans DO NOT always coincide with oceanic crust—in fact the oceans rarely match the boundary between continental and oceanic crust.
Wrote "The Origins of Continents and Oceans"
1) The “fit” of the continents.
2) Similar fossils on distant continents
3) Similar rock types on distant continents
4) Conflicting climatic evidence
As science and technology has advanced, additional evidence has been observed to support the Plate Tectonics theory: 5) Sea floor topography
6) Magnetic seafloor anomalies
7) Age of Oceanic Crust
8) Gravity Anomalies
9) Location of Earthquakes, 10) Location of Volcanoes
Linear features on the sea floor follow predicted paths of plate
motion and boundaries.
- Additionally, more mid-ocean ridges were discovered that
explained additional plate motion
generated by rotational flow in the liquid outer core. We know:
1) The outer core is Fe, Ni and liquid.
2) The movement (or rotation) of a magnet through a coil of wire generates an electrical current.
3) Electrical current generates a magnetic field
The time periods where the Earth’s magnetic poles are
1) Shear Traction
2) Ridge Push
3) Slab Pull
1) Divergent Plate Margin- Two lithospheric plates are moving away from each other.
2) Transform Plate Margin- Two lithospheric plates are sliding next to each other.
3) Convergent Plate Margin- Two lithospheric plates are moving toward each other.
the initial rupture point of an earthquake,
where potential strain energy is first converted to
elastic wave energy
1) Initial relaxed state (no stress)
2) Stressed state (stress is added to the material)
3) Release (stress is converted to strain); back to relaxed state (1)
1. Primary wave (fastest; arrive first)
2. Typically smallest in amplitude
3. Vibrates parallel to the direction of wave propagation
1. Secondary waves (moderate speed; arrives second)
2. Typically moderate amplitude
3. Vibrates perpendicular to direction of wave propagation
1. Arrives last
2. Typically largest amplitude
3. Vibrates in reverse elliptical motion - like waves on the
a seismometer detects an earthquake and a seismograph records the signal onto a seismogram
1. To understand the formation of the earth’s crust
2. To understand fundamental geologic changes
3. To understand the formation of different types of rock
4. Mineral and natural energy resources come from processes operating in the rock cycle.
5. To learn about earth’s major land features
1. To know how rocks are formed
2. To know how rocks “decompose” and what happens to them after that
3. To understand what part erosion plays in the destruction and formation of rock material
4. To understand what happens to rock material as it “decays”
5. To know the geologic processes that affect the surface of the earth
6. The key to geologic change on the planet
It allows geologists to obtain more accurate dates for the rock material surrounding the fossils according to the “ages” in which those fossils occurred.
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