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Some practical values would be how best to find natural resources and when to expect natural hazards that affect our wellbeing and survival
primarily constitutes in limestone and dolostone. Calcite (CaCO
3) and dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) are the two most important carbonate minerals
atoms share electrons. These are generally stronger than ionic bonds.
atoms/ions chemically bond to form an orderly internal structure. Precipitation from saturated solutions: halite. Cooling of liquids: magma
igneous rock. Biological process: limestone.
naturally occurring, an inorganic solid, has an orderly crystalline structure, and a definite chemical composition.
are defined as a solid aggregate of minerals.
An underground igneous body, once cooled and solidified
either tabular (sheet like)
approximately 4.5 billion years old
radioactive dating for the age of lava flow. A Chron is ~ 1 million years and a subchron is thousands of years up to 200,000 years.
His hypothesis state that a supercontinent, Pangaea, began breaking apart 200 million years ago. The fit of the continents, Fossil evidence, rock type and structure similarities and paleoclimactic evidence (glacial scratches/grooves tell movement direction. In the recent glacial period (Paleozoic), southern continents joined near the South Pole) all supported his hypothesis.
Transform Fault Boundaries
Plates slide past each other and no new lithosphere is created or destroyed (Figure 24). Most join two segments of a Mid-Ocean Ridge, along breaks in the oceanic crust, known as fracture zones.
On a map of the seafloor the boundaries between normally magnetized oceanic crust and reversely magnetized oceanic crust is called
which of the following pairs of intrusive and extrusive have the same chemical composition
What type of metamorphism is caused by high temp and pressure imposed over large volume of crust
How do crystal size and foliation change w/ increasing intensity of metamorphism
Most divergent plate boundaries are located along the crest of oceanic ridges
Examples include the Mid Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise. Seafloor spreading occurs along these ridges
examine the Earth’s materials and seek understanding of the processes of our planet
understand the origin of earth and its development through time
How do geologists study Earth?
Geologists work through field observations, or field trips, including to remote regions; Taking their findings back to labs, geologists also perform experiments; They build their theories by building computer models for geologic phenomena
What are the fundamental principles in geology?
Science assumes that the natural world is consistent and predictable (repeatable), so the goal of science is to discover patterns in nature and use that knowledge to make predications.
Nature of scientific inquiry
• Science assumes the natural world is consistent and predictable.
• The goal of science is to discover patterns in nature and use the knowledge to make predictions.
• Scientists collect data(facts)through observation and measurements
• How or why things happen are explained using: theory and hypothesis
• Scientific methods involves: -facts through observations -Formulation of hypotheses and theories
One light year is equal to the distance that light travels in one earth year (~6 trillion minutes)
basis for the Big Bang Theory of Universe formation. This concept is applied to different type of waves (sound waves, light waves, etc.), for example a moving train whistle (the sound source).
The Nebular Theory states that the Sun and all other objects in the system formed from material in the nebulae
The sun, a star, makes up 99.8% of the mass of our solar system. Planets and their moons make up most of the remaining percentage
Components of the solar system
1. Inner core: composed of solid iron.
2. outer core: fluid metallic iron/nickel alloy
3. Mantle: solid rocky layer composed of peridotite.
4. Crust: acts as a thin skin, composed of basalt and granite
1. lithosphere: solid and rigid
2. Asthenosphere: solid but mobil
3. mantle: solid rocky layer
4. core: solid iron.
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
Igneous rock occurs from magma crystallizing (or cools and solidifies) on or beneath the earth’s surface.
rock weathers into sediment. Next, the sediments undergo lithification forming sedimentary rock.
When the sedimentary rock undergoes immense heat and pressure, the rock will react to the changing environment and turn into metamorphic rock.
a German geophysicist, first proposed the continental rift hypothesis in 1915. He also published The Origins of Continents and Oceans.
Earth’s magnetic field is like a giant ___________, and magnetized minerals in rocks align in the direction of ____________, and thus provide a means of determining magnetic poles at the time of their formation.
Curves for North America and Europe have similar paths but are separated by about the width of the North Atlantic Ocean (3000 miles).
The apparent movement of the magnetic poles indicates that the continents have moved, and the continental drift hypothesis was revised.
Seafloor Spreading Hypothesis
An upwelling of mantle along MOR creates new seafloor. The mantle convection carries seafloor away from the Mid Ocean Ridge, and the seafloor descends into the mantle at deep trenches.
Marine Magnetic Anomalies
There is two parts to Earth’s magnetic field. The main field is like a field from a bar magnet at the core. Magnetic anomalies are caused by near surface objects (detecting submarines, fining metal mineral resources,…) Marine magnetic anomalies have a pattern (Figure 2.14/15), alternating bands of positive and negative anomalies. The Bans are parallel and symmetrical about the Mid Ocean Ridge.
Paleomagnetic measurements of lava layers on land reveal that magnetic north/south poles flip (or reverse) periodically, called magnetic reversals (Figure 2.12). Normal polarity is the same as the current pole configuration, and reverse polarity is the opposite.
plates: (1) North American, (2) South American, (3) Pacific, (4) African, (5) Eurasian, (6) Australian-Indian, (7) Antarctic
when landmasses split into smaller segments along continental rifts.
5 cm/year (2 in/year), and a very fast rate at the East Pacific Rise: 15 cm/year.
Older portions of oceanic plates are returned to the mantle at these destructive plate margins. An ocean trench is a surface expression of the descending plate. Descending angles of oceanic plates at a trench depend on oceanic plate age. The older the plate, the larger descending angle (farther away from the Mid Ocean Ridge) - i.e. mariana-Tonga trench (older), and the Peru-Chile trench (younger)
Oceanic-continental plate boundaries
In this type of plate boundary, the denser oceanic slab sinks into the asthenosphere. Along the descending plate, partial melting of mantle
Chapter 2: Plate Tectonics
rock (due to water) generates magma. The resulting volcanic mountain chain is called a continental volcanic arc (i.e. the Andes and the Cascades- Figure 2.18)
Oceanic-Oceanic plate boundaries
When two oceanic slabs converge, one descends beneath the other, often forming volcanoes on the ocean floor. If the volcanoes emerge as islands, a volcanic arc is formed (i.e. Japan, the Aleutian Islands, and the Tonga).
Continental-continental plate boundaries
Continued subduction can bring two continents together. The less dense, buoyant continental lithosphere does not subduct. The resulting collision produces mountains (i.e. the Himalayas, Alps, and Appalachians).
The theory provides explanations for earth’s major surface processes, distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains, distribution of ancient organisms and mineral deposits.
Assuming hotspots remain fixed, what direction was the Pacific plate moving while the Hawaii islands were forming?
Which is the most important force in driving plate motion
are a group of the same kind of atoms (there are approximately 90 naturally occurring elements).
the formation of a compound by combining two or more atoms
atoms gain or lose the outermost (valence electrons to form ions. Ionic compounds consist of an orderly arrangement of oppositely charged ions.
valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms. These are weaker than covalent bonds.
a combination of chemical bonding, ionic bonding, and metallic bonding
the mass number equals the number of protons and neutrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element (i.e. same number of protons), but have a different mass number (more or less neutrons). Unstable isotopes emit partials and energy in a process known as radioactive decay
Resulting crystal shape is governed by its surroundings. In open spaces-______________. In closed spaces _____________.
good crystal faces grow (euhedral crystal)
no crystal face grows (anhedral crystal
minerals with the same composition but different crystalline structures. For example, diamonds have a covalent bond in a three dimensional framework, and graphite has covalent bonds into sheets, and a weak metallic bond between sheets.
one polymorph changes into another. Diamonds and graphite form at different environments.
the appearance of a mineral in reflected light
There are two categories: Metallic and nonmetallic.
the resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching
the color of a mineral in its powder form.
All minerals are compared to a standard scale called the
Mohs Scale of Hardness
is the tendency to break along planes of weak bonding and produces flat, shiny surfaces.
are the absence of cleavage when a mineral is broken.
the weight of a mineral divided by the weight of an equal volume of water.
lack ion and magnesium and include feldspar group (most common, figure 3.33), Quartz (entirely Oxygen and Silicone), Muscovite (common member of the Mica Family), and clay minerals (originate from chemical weathering).
contain iron and magnesium and include Olivine groups (high temperature Fe-Ma silicates), pyroxene group (single-chained structures, Figure 3.36), amphibole group (double-chained structures), Biotite (iron-rich member of the Mica family, sheet structure), and garnet (commonly in metamorphic rocks).
Oxides (hematite, Magnetite for iron), Halites (Halide mined for salt), Sulfides (sulfide mined for zinc ore), and native copper.