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the study of how organisms interact with the Earth system
Isostatic Movement example
-Uplift areas recently covered by thick, continental ice sheets.
Geology of the Pacific coastal regions of W. North America/Alaska?
-Geologically different, microcontinent-sized fragments and terranes, formed elsewhere, where tectonically accreted to North America
Foliation in a metamorphic rock is the result of?
In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely?
Regional metamorphism is characteristic of collisional mountain ranges because…
-High pressures are generated by the collision and rising magma heats the rocks
In which setting would hydrothermal metamorphism be most likely?
-@ Shallow depths within a mid-oceanic ridge
Why do “new” minerals that didn’t exist in the parent rock form during metamorphism of a rock?
-New T and P conditions cause a change in the stability conditions in the rock, allowing new minerals to form
During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids?
-Aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of mineral grains
A deeply eroded, structural basin would exhibit __________?
-Strata oriented in roughly circular, out crop patterns
“Jointing” in rocks is characterized by ________?
What is a syncline?
Where do most joints form, why?
-In the outermost crust where tensional and shearing stresses cause brittle deformation and weathering releases stress on the rocks, allowing them to expand and crack
What is the difference between BRITTLE and PLASTIC deformation?
-Brittle occurs when rocks @ low pressures are colder and thus more prone to breakage, whereas Plastic deformation occurs in rocks under high pressure @ high temps where energy is higher and rocks can flow
A reverse fault is one in which ______?
-The hanging wall has moves up relative to the footwall block along an inclined fault
What is a reverse fault?
What kind of fault is the San Andreas Fault?
The Andean Mountain ranges form @_______?
-Convergent plate boundaries where ocean crust is consumed beneath continental margins
Andean type mountain ranges are characteristics of?
-Subduction of oceanic crust beneath a continent
Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by high energy, fast-moving streams?
Fossiliferous limestone is most likely to form in what type of depositional environment?
What is the size range of sand grains?
Why isn’t shale as prominently exposed @ surface as sandstone?
-Shale crumbles easily, and the clays swell, causing increased weathering; whereas sandstone resists weathering more effectively
What are the most important physical processes of mechanical weathering?
-Frost wedging, cracking by thermal shock
A common mineral produced by weathering of silicate is?
What is soil?
What is “Soil profile”?
-Soil forming processes occur from bottom-up in breaking up rock and top-down in adding organics, clay, and soluble materials. This causes each layer to appear differently in composition, texture, structure, and color.
Locating horizontal coal-bed…
-Above the highest piece of sandstone
What is “Slumping”?
-A block of a rock or soil material that slides down along a covered slip surface
A debris flow is a mass wasting process that ________?
-Occurs when large amounts of water saturates a rock mass on a steep slope and exceeds the ability of the slope to support itself
Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement?
4. What type of volcano consists of both lava flows and pyroclastic deposits?
a. A shield volcano
b. A stratovolcano
c. A volcanic dome
d. A cinder cone
6. Which of the following minerals is most likely to form a clay mineral during weathering?
b. Iron pyroxene
8. Permeability is the _________.
a. Process by which plants release water vapor to the atmosphere
b. Ability of a solid to allow fluids to pass through
c. Amount of water vapor in the air relative to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold
d. Percentage of pore space in a rock
a. The S-wave shadow zone is larger than the P-wave shadow zone.
b. Seismic waves follow straight paths through the interior of the Earth
c. Liquids do not transmit P waves
d. P-wave velocities are greater in the core than in the mantle
The Milankovitch cycles are dependent on the Earth’s _______.
Weathering of carbonate and silicate rocks ________
The main component(s) of the climate system is/are ________.
1. Solidified fragments of volcanic material ejected into the air are called __________.
a. Pillow basalts
3. Acids enhance chemical weathering. What is the most common natural acid on the Earth’s atmosphere and surface?
a. Hydrochloric acid
b. Sulfuric acid
c. Carbonic acid
d. Nitric acid
Acids enhance chemical weathering. What is the most common natural acid on the Earth’s atmosphere and surface?
5. Based on seismic tomographic images, how deep do subducting slabs extend?
a. To the inner core-outer core boundary
b. To the core-mantle boundary
c. To the crust-mantle boundary
d. To the upper mantle-lower boundary
Based on seismic tomographic images, how deep do subducting slabs extend?
7. Layers that store and transmit groundwater are called _______.
a. Unsaturated zones
d. Influent streams
Layers that store and transmit groundwater are called _______.
10. The greenhouse effect is caused by __________.
a. Heating of homes and business, which releases excess heat into the atmosphere
b. Too many plants on the surface of the Earth, which prevent cooling of the surface
c. Carbon dioxide and water vapor that trap heat radiating from the Earth’s surface
11. Earthquakes that originate at depths greater than 100km are associated with ______ plate boundaries.
b. Convergent, divergent, and transform
12. What is the general process by which rocks are broken down at the Earth’s surface?
13. Which layer in the Earth does not transmit S waves?
a. The outer core
b. The mantle
c. The crust
d. The inner core
14. In which of the following climates will chemical weathering be the most rapid?
a. Cold and humid
b. Hot and humid
c. Cold and dry
d. Hot and dry
15. Which of the following unfractured rocks has the highest porosity?
16. How many seismograph stations are needed to locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
17. The Milankovitch cycles are dependent on the Earth’s _______.
b. Angle of tilt on the rotation axis
c. Orbital eccentricity
d. All of the above
18. The process by which surface water becomes groundwater is called ________
a. Removes carbon from the atmosphere and the lithosphere
b. Adds carbon to the atmosphere and the lithosphere
c. Adds carbon to the atmosphere and removes carbon from the lithosphere
d. Removes carbon from the atmosphere and adds carbon to the lithosphere
20. Which of the following statements regarding carbon dioxide is true?
a. Chemical weathering reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
b. Chemical weathering of feldspar is not related to atmospheric carbon dioxide
c. As carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, chemical weathering decreases
d. An increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere cools the climate
21. Which of the following minerals is most stable at the Earth’s surface?
22. Chemical analysis of ice cores demonstrates that as temperature increases, concentrations of atmospheric ________.
a. Carbon dioxide decreases while methane increases
b. Carbon dioxide and methane both increase
c. Carbon dioxide and methane both decrease
d. Carbon dioxide increases while methane decreases
23. If the amount of discharge in an aquifer exceeds the amount of recharge, the groundwater table ________.
a. Will remain the same
b. May rise or drop depending on the permeability
c. Will drop
d. Will rise
24. What is the cryosphere?
a. Upper atmosphere
b. Upper mantle beneath the lithosphere
c. Barren desert
d. Ice caps and glaciers
25. What does the elastic rebound theory describe?
a. The fluctuations in groundwater prior to an earthquake
b. The uplift of the crust in response to erosion
c. The build-up and release of stress during an earthquake
d. The formation of mountain ranges by successive earthquakes
26. What is the difference between the saturated and unsaturated zones of groundwater?
a. The pore spaces in the saturated zone are not full of water; the pore spaces in the unsaturated zone are full of water
b. The saturated zone has a higher porosity than the unsaturated zone
c. The saturated zone has a lower porosity than the unsaturated zone
d. The pore spaces in the saturated zone are full of water; the pore spaces in the unsaturated zone are not full of water
27. Which of the following is an example of physical weathering?
a. The reaction of feldspar to kaolinite
b. The oxidation of iron silicates in a basalt
c. The dissolution of a rock by rainwater
d. The splitting of a rock by a tree root
28. Stripping soil of vegetation by burning or deforestation will ______ the likelihood of mass movements.
a. Not affect
b. Greatly decrease
29. Which of the following statements about lava is true?
a. The more gas a lava contains, the less violent the eruption
b. The viscosity of a lava increases as the silica content decreases
c. All of the statements above are true
d. High temperature lavas are less viscous than low-temperature lavas
30. The main component(s) of the climate system is/are ________.
a. The atmosphere
b. The hydrosphere
c. The cryosphere
d. All of the above
Earthquakes that originate at depths greater than 100km are associated with ______ plate boundaries.
Which of the following statements about lava is true?
What type of volcano has the largest and most violent eruptions?
In which of the following tectonic settings do most of the Earth's active volcanoes occur?
Magma generated in the Earth's interior rises because it is ______ than the
What is the approximate distance from the surface to the center of the Earth?
How fast do P waves travel through granite?
The S-wave shadow zone extends from ____ to 180° angular distance from the
Which of the following regions in the Earth consists primarily of olivine and
Which of the following statements about the asthenosphere is false?
The mechanical transfer of heat by vibration of atoms and molecules is called
Over geologic time, most of the heat lost from the Earth's interior has been
transported by ______.
Which of the following minerals, present in a granite, is not altered by chemical
Which of the following minerals is most susceptible to oxidation?
Organic matter in the Earth's topsoil is called ___________.
The release of water vapor from plants is called ______.
Groundwater represent ( ) of the world's fresh water?
Which of the following statements about the water table is true?