Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
tetrapod, had weak limbs & couldn’t walk on land (no wrists), intermediate btw lobe-finned fish amphibians
Had both lungs and gills.
most mammal-like of all the therapsids
by the late Triassic true mammals evolved from them
looks like alligator/tetrapod- Tiktaalik is a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods.
“a fish with feet”
Intermediate btw lobe-finned fish and amphibians; gills and scales like a fish, but limb-like fins, functional wrist bones and 5 digits
the largest and most successful group of fishes and make up half of all living vertebrates. One the first fish with bone. Small series of bones outward creating a fin.True bone, true teeth fused with jaw bone
These small shelly animals were millimeters in size and represent the first appearance of diverse skeletal material in the fossil record, some 10 million years before the first trilobites appear in the fossil record. oldest known metazoans (animals) had mineralized (skeletal) hard parts, and thus are the probable ascendants to the many phyla of the Cambrian Explosion.
The first appearance of skeletonized taxa in the rock record
1. Retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults of a species, as among certain amphibians.2. The attainment of sexual maturity by an organism still in its larval stage.
the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.
Late Cambrian. armored, jawless fish. Went extinct
- the concept that the natural laws that are in place today have always been laws throughout time
the first four limbed vertebrates and their descendentsIsua, Greenland
- species fit into their environment
-examines nature to see gods work
- species were created perfect and unchanging- all extinctions were caused by Noahs flood
- there is little to no variation within a species
natural selection: the process by which, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminateddescent with modification: shared similar structures show ancestral connections; descendents from a common parent; explains the grouping of all organic beings
mixture of theropod and bird characteristics
small theropods, social, parental care, herding, long arms, fast runners, light bones, and brain was large.
1. low diversity and low abundance
2. small size
4. herbivores and carnivores
-opening of the Atlantic Ocean
--massive floods of lava erupting from the central Atlantic
--the volcanism-global warming (C02 increasing with sea floor spreading)
o posture more erect orientation
o limbs move parallel to the vertebral column
What is the importance of the type of Thecodont ankles...?
1. The characteristics that are shared between Thecodonts, such as Lagosuchus and Dinosaurs are....
hole in hip= thecodont
hole in acetabulum= dinosaur
Describe a typical Late Triassic Dinosaur such as Herrerasaurus
What can the study of eggs, nests, and the size distribution of babies add to our knowledge of dinosaur behaviors??
Gastroliths are gizzard stones that helped aid in digestion for _______ (ate these stones to help them digest)
Dinosaurs first appeared in ______. They evolved from the reptilian group called _______. And mammals also started evolving at this time.
_____ animals lose heat slower than ______ animals because they can retain heat and maintain a constant relatively high body temperature (more surface area).
The crested ___________ could vocalize because it had a closed tube on top of its head.
If Robin and a Stegosaur appeared together on Jeopardy Robin would win because she has a bigger brain and the Stegoaur had a walnut brain-dumb.
The purpose of Stegosaur’s dorsal, bony plates was_______
Ankylosaurs protect themselves from predators with ______.
True or False:
Dinosaurs had color vision (best guest) because their present day relatives have color vision.
Because of Ontogeny the number of fossil species has _______ because the fossils aren’t new species, instead they are the different ages of the same species.
The purposes of the Ceratopsian headgear....
The Pachycephalosaurs used their heads for....
How did the Ornithopods differ from other herbivorous dinosaurs?
The Ornithischian dinosaurs that were social was the Marginocephalia (clades: Ceratopsians and Pachycephalosaurs).
There is evidence for herding in the Marginocephalia and Ornithopods (Hadrosaurs) because of foot prints, large quantities of them together
There is evidence of parental care in Ornthipods
The best explanation for the bazaar headgear of some Ceratopsian dinosaurs
Each of the Ornithischian dinosaur group protect themselves from predation:
Thyreophora- dermal plates
Stegosaurs- spiked tail
Ankylosaurs- dermal bones
Marginocephalia- head gear
Hadrosaurs “Duck-billed” and “Crested”
Some dinosaurs have feathers because fossils shows this. Birds evolved from _______.
Compare the metabolic problems that face small dinosaurs and large dinosaurs:
T. rex. was both a predator or scavenger
o teeth not good at tearing
o large olfactory lobs- like vultures (smell)
o long metatarsals- good runners for short
distances not speed
o inner ear large balance while running fast
Sauropods raised their necks because....
Sauropods got so large because....
Some hypotheses for the original function of feathers:
insulation- small dinosaurs lost heat
display- sexual selection
Sauropods ate low quality food because...
Considering the Sauropod small head, they eat at higher levels where others couldn’t eat because .....
All dinosaurs didn’t nest because...
The difference between the arms of Ornithominids, T. Rex, žManiraptors
What is the relationship between the diet of Sauropods and the size of these dinosaurs?
The Saurischian dinosaurs grew very fast to protect the _____.
All Theropods have teeth.
Talk about the teeth of... Ceratosaurs, T Rex, Maniraptors
Ceratosaurs-sharp and pointed back (tearing)
T Rex- crushers not tearing
Maniraptors- sharp teeth
The Sauropod bones are similar to bird bones because....
There is evidence that Sauropods migrated because ______.
Contrast features that Archaeopteryx had or lacked with a closely related Theropod with a more modern bird:
Functions of the wings served before flight were for...
The relationship between Theropod skulls and Bird skulls is ....
The evidence that birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs- Archaeopteryx because it has a mixture of theropod and bird characteristics:
long bony tail- not bird char.
clawed fingers-birds don’t have fingers
jaws with teeth- birds don’t have teeth
theropod pelvis- modified pubis bone to bird
position in front
feathers- asymmetrical like birds
claw with dimple
The importance of feathers is that it shows ________.
The evidence that links T. rex to birds is that ______.
hollow bones thin and light (like birds)
powered flapping flight= fliers (like birds)
bird like air sacs that reduced density and improved breathing
beaks were larger than modern birds?
diet and feeding habits similar to birds (many ate fishes)
habitats- were similar to birds, but not in forests
Rhamphorhynchoids (Late Triassic to L. Jurassic)
Pterodactyloids (L. Jurassic to Late Cretaceous)
(Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic)
12% of earths history
(Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian)
CAMBRIAN PERIOD 542-488
ORDOVICIAN PERIOD 448-444
MISSISSIPPIAN Period (359-318)
PERMIAN PERIOD (299-251)
*Hot climate “the great dying”
o Reptile dominant (Diapsid)
o Therapids – reptiles w/ mammal features
-Acanthodians (mix lobe-finned fish & amphibian)
- Placoderms & Pelycosaurs (finned back reptiles)
- Sulfur aerosols & volcanic ash blocked sunlight & acidified oceans = MASS EXTINCTION (synapsids perish) & end of Paleozoic era
Permian Period (299-251 my)
Warming trend, ice age recedes
Reptiles become dominant on land
Therapids- reptiles with mammal-like features
Permian Period (299-251 my)
· Petrified forest
· Arches & Canyonlands
· Capitol Reef National Parks
o Sandstone on top of Shale
Triassic Period (251-200 my)
time of recovery
Pangaea extends almost from pole to pole
Continued high temps, dry climate, (desert sandstones common)
JURASSIC PERIOD (200-146)
o Pangaea break up
o Nevadan Orogeny “rockies” (late Jurassic)
**Zion National Park (sandstone)**
o 1st Birds
o Bigger Dinos (giant sauropods “plant-eaters”)
o bivalve reefs
o Seedless vascular plants & gymnosperms
o Ferns & corals in warm climate
Epeiric Sea covered 1/3 of land during Zuni Transgression caused North America 2 split
MASS Extinction caused by a meteor hitting the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) 70% of all species extinct
· Terror birds
· Paleogene & Neogene periods temperature decreasing
Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene
Paleocene Epoch (66-56my)
Eocene Epoch 56-34my
o Hot (Paleocene – Eocene Thermal Maximum)
o Himalayan Mts growning
o Mammals move out of forest
1st primates (Paleocene-Eocene)
3 toed horses (Perissodactyla)
whales evolve from wolf like animals (Pakcetus)
temps decreasing, forest change to grasslands
o Land bridge between Africa, Eurasia, N America
o Earliest Hominids
§ Arboreal or Bipedal locomotion
§ Smaller canines & specialized teeth
§ Grasping hand & bigger skulls
Pliocene Epoch (5-2.6 my)
o “Great American Interchange”
§ Panama animals migrate between N & S
o Genus Australopithecus evolved in Africa
§ A. Anamensis – bipedal
§ A. Afarensis – hip under (lucy)
§ A. Africanus - possible ancestor of Homo Habilis
cooling and drying trend continues
Panama: land animals freely migrate between N. and S. America, divides Atlantic and Pacific -- marine life alloptric speciation.
flowerless seed plants
flexible rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates
Carolus Linnaeus CLASSIFICATION OF LIFE (of a Human)
Kingdom = Animalia
Phylum = Chordata
Class = Mammalia
Order = Primates
Family = Hominidae
Genus = Homo
Species = H. Sapiens
were the dominant reptiles during the Early Permian, whereas therapsids dominated for the rest of the Permian period.
Durondon = the 1st whale to stay in water
dominant land-dwelling vertebrate animal (reptiles) following Paleozoic extinction
What is a dinosaur?
Reptiles; walked with hind limbs directly beneath the body. No “wide stance”
Did not fly or swim
Incl. the largest land amimals that ever lived, but also other sizes (small too)
One of most successful animal groups ever.
oldest known bird
Mesozoic: jurassic age
many theropod characteristics
1. Unusual clay layer in Italy, proven by the Iridium anomaly – high levels of Iridium in unlikely places (usually found in meteorites)
2. Shocked Quartz- Found near impact craters and nuclear collision craters
a. Crater found (half on land half under gulf of mexico)
**110 miles in diameter**
Cretaceous Time Period
bony plates, quadruptal herbivore
· Cretacecous sea reptiles (Not Dinosaurs)
· Breathed air
· Laid eggs on land
· 4 flippers, sharp teeth, pointed tails
· Skeletal structure change
· Increase brain size
· Stereoscopic vision
· Grasping hand w/ thumb
Present-day humans, and their extinct ancestors
Primate that include present-day humans and our extinct ancestors
Who/what was “Ardi”?
Who/what was Lucy?
a. Ardi: Ardipithecus—Most complete early hominid fossil ever found
b. Lucy: Australopithecus afarensis—Found Ethiopia1974; 40% of skeleton; About 3.5 feet tall; smaller and lighter than Ardi
mars, mercury, jupiter, venus, and saturn.
o Describe the first metazoan
§ Sponge = 760 million years old, small (size ofgrain of sand), microscopic
o Explain how a symbiotic relationship amongProterozoic prokaryotes may have given rise to eukaryotes
§ A Proterozoic prokaryotes absorbed bacteria andbecome more complex à eventually developed into a eukaryote cell (needs Oxygen Protection from UV radiation – Ozone)
§ SYMBIOSIS = relationship for mutual Benefit
o How did the retreat of glaciers during thesnowball earth influence the development of metazoans?
§ Releases nutrients into the ocean; sharpincrease in phosphorus; oxygen and nutrients stimulated the evolution of metazoans