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if a light source moves away from you, the light you see becomes redder, as the light shifts to longer wavelength or lower frequency
- if light source moves towards you, the light you see becomes bluer, as the light shifts to higher frequency and shorter wavelength
the cataclysmic explosion that caused earth to expand. All matter and energy that now constitutes the universe was initially packed into an infinitesimally small point. the point exploded and the universe began.
- the universe originated in "singularity"
-universe is 13.79 bill yrs old
a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star. it is the flattened, outer part of the disk and is the source of planets.
-forms from nebulae
an explanation for the origin of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets. The sun and all other objects in the Solar System formed from material that had been swirling about in a nebula.
-Planets and asteroid belt formed at the same time!
earth's crust and upper mantle form these and are rigid & divided up
-they move at different rates in diff directions over the surface of the earth; interacting with each other at plate boundaries
outerlayer of relatively rigid rock that encompasses the crust and the uppermost mantle
the region affected by the force emanating from a magnet. This force can attract or repel another magnet and can cause charged particles to move
geologists have found that the magnetic fields of ancient rocks indicate the orientation of the magnetic field, relative to the rock *at the time the rock formed*.
gravity holds stars together in immense groups called this; stars are not randomly scattered through the Universe
model that says the Sun lay at the center of the Universe, with the Earth and other planets orbiting around it. ****Galilei and Copernicus**** validated this is true
Isaac Newton explained this as the attractive force that one object exerts on another.
-the strength depends on the quantity of matter in the two masses and on the distance bw them.
the sun, planets, moons and countless other objects held together by the “glue” of gravitational attraction comprise this. 8 planets: mercury, venus, earth, mars, jupiters, saturn, uranus, and neptune (pluto used to be considered a planet but not anymore)
Isaac Newton defined this as a push or pull that causes the velocity (speed) of an object to change in magnitude and/or direction
the distance that light travels in one Earth year, equals about 9.5 trillion.
refers to the amount of mass within a given volume. A denser material contains more mass per unit volume
basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons. makes up an element.
generates energy in nuclear power plants and in the explosion of an atomic bomb.
reactions power the Sun and occur during the explosion of a hydrogen bomb
large mass that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium. The protostellar phase is an early stage in the process of star formation.
a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months
process by which elements form during the life cycle of stars by combining the protons and neutrons together from the nuclei of lighter elements.
materials that can exist as gas at the Earth’s surface. such as hydrogen, helium, methane, ammonia, water, and carbon dioxide.
-in the pressure & temp. conditions of space, some of this material remain in gaseous form, but others freeze to form diff kinds of "ice"
hose that melt only at high temps, and they condense to form solid soot-sized particles of “dust” in the coldness of space.
bodies approaching the size of today’s planets.
Once it succeeds in incorporating virtually all the debris within its orbit, it becomes a full-fledged planet.
Period in which a wave of lunar rocks pummeled the inner worlds a few hundred million years after the solar system had formed.
a simulation published by a team of researchers suggests that the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) likely formed nearer to each other and closer to the Sun than they are now
leftovers of the protoplanetary disk from which the solar system formed.
-comets that take longer than 200 yrs to orbit the sun are formed here.
contains solar wind particles within its region
a diffuse ring of icy objects. comets that originate here are ones that take less than 200 yrs to orbit the sun.
traps cosmic rays and protects life on earth from dangerous radiation.
water that fills cracks and holes within rock and sediment under the land surface
the variation in elevation of the land surfaces, defines plains, mountains, and valleys
variation in elevation of the ocean floor, defines mid-ocean ridges, plains, and deep ocean trenches
carbon-containing compounds that either occur in living organisms, or have characteristics that resemble compounds in living organisms
a solid in which atoms are not arranged in an orderly pattern
an accumulation of loose mineral grains
takes places when you stick the end of an iron bar in a fire. the iron atoms at the fire-licked end of the bar start to vibrate more energetically; they gradually incite atoms further up the bar to start jiggling, and these atoms in turn set atoms even farther along in motion.
takes place when you set a pot of water on a stove. the heat from the stove warms the water at the bottom of the pot by making the molecules of water vibrate faster and move around more. as a consequence, the density of the water at the base of the pot decreases as you heat a liquid. the atoms move away from each other and the liquid expands. eventually, the warm less-dense water rises and the cold water sinks.
happens when heat is carried by a fluid flowing through cracks and pores within a solid material. the heat then warms up the solid that the fluid passes through.
the angle bw the direction that a compass needle points and a line of longitude at a given location
angle bw a magnetic field line and the surface of the earth
refers to the “supposed position” of the Earth’s magnetic north pole in the past. With this concept in mind, they set out to track what they thought was the change in position of paleopole over time.
- the difference bw the expected strength of the Earth’s main dipole field at a certain location and the actual measured strength of the magnetic field at that location.
places where the field strength is stronger than expected
places where the field strength is weaker than expected
times when the earth’s magnetic field flips from normal to reversed polarity, and vice versa. when the earth has reversed polarity, the south magnetic pole lies near the north geographic pole, and vice versa.
when thinkers propose a new point of view that invalidates an old paradigm; then they scrap old hypothesis consistent with the new pardigm and test it. —Thomas Kuhn
the upward force acting on an object immersed or floating in a fluid. Archimedes was first to understand this.
surface of the sediment layer that covers passive margins. The surface is broad and shallow; home to major fisheries of the world.
occurs bc lithosphere is denser then asthenosphere (oceanic crust). Once the end of the convergent plate bends down and slips into the mantle, it begins to sink like. As the lithosphere sinks, asthenosphere flows out of its way, very slowly.
two plates slide past each other on a vertical fault surface.
deep down into the ocean is spewing hot, mineralized water rises from crack in the sea floor after being heated by magma below the surface; forming “chimneys” bc the water they emit looks like a cloud of dark smoke.
-vascular, stems, water conducting tissue
-Silurian to early Devonian
group of animals include mammals and reptile stem mammals (“mammal-like reptiles”
-Primitive synapsids called pelycosaurs (earliest form of synapsid reptiles)
-Top Predator: Dimetrodon- early synapsid
-“Pelycosaur”: Reptile- NOT a dinosaur
-Differentiated teeth like YOURS
bipedal meat eaters
· NOT dinosaurs
· Wings: skin stretched between elongated finger on hand & foot
· First vertebrate to fly
· NOT dinosaur
· No feet – had flipper
A flowering plant that produces seeds enclosed in a protective structure.
different kinds of teeth (differentiated), 1 opening in skull behind eyes (temporal fenestra) to hold jaw muscles, pillar-like rear legs, 3 ear bones; “mammal-like”
-Dominant land vertebrates in Permian, biggest predators, dominant type of reptile in the Permian
2 temporal fenestrae holes, homogenous teeth (all the same kind, but different sizes), teeth replaced throughout lives
-Descendants include: crocodiles, lizards, snakes, tuataras, dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and birds)
Enormous flood basalt eruptions
-Climate change: sulfur aerosols fill atmosphere, blocking sunlight, acidifying the oceans, END PALEOZOIC
-Killed off most of the life in oceans, very unhappy place to live at the Permian Triassic Boundary (Northern Pangaea), most people think it was a major contributor to the mass extinction
o Most primitive therapod (bipedal meat-eaters)
o Found in South America
o Built for speed and agility
o Razor edged teeth
o Fast predator
o Leg bones hollow helped reduce weight and increase speed
· Mudstone, sandstone, siltstone (floodplain deposits)
· Most fertile source of dinos fossils in N. America
· Mid-Cretaceous, Africa
· Largest animal to exist
· Big sharp teeth
· Up to 50 ft long, 6-7 tons
· Longer than T-Rex and giganotosaurus, but lighter
· 6 ft neural spines along back
· Lived in water
Chicxulub Asteroid Impact
· Asteroid about 6 miles in diameter, into carbon and sulfur rich rocks in Chicxulub, Mexico
· Global forest fires, soot in the atmosphere blocked the sun, cooling temps and acid rain
· 60% of plant species dead (pollen fossils)
· Food chains collapsed
· Climate change, end of Mesozoic Era
What is a dinosaur?
· Do not swim or fly (exception of spinosaur who spent time in water)
· Included the largest land animals that ever lived (small other sizes too)
· Fossils of > 1000 diff species for 165 m.y.
o Not all lived at same time/place
· One of most successful animal groups ever
· Included 2 reptile class orders: Saurischia & Ornithiscia
· Saurischian: meat eaters (therapods) & plant eaters (saurapods)
· Omithischian: plant eaters, duck billed, horned, armored
· All tetrapods have hips composed of 3 parts – ilium, ischium, pubis
· Kingdom: Animalia
· Phylum: Chordata
· Class: Reptilia
· Order: Saurischia
· Late Jurassic
o “Link” feathered dinos to birds
o Evolved from small therapods: jaws with sharp teeth, 3 fingers with claws (“killing claw”), long bony tail, feathers
fission theory: the molten earth was spinning on its axis so rapidly that it stretched and elongated until it flung off a glob of magma from the surface into orbit
capture theory: viewed moon as separately formed from the earth; at some point the two bodies passed close enough to each other that larger earth captured smaller moon, swinging it into a looping orbit that has gradually settled down
4.5 billion years ago, earth and a smaller planet(Theia) were both trying to have the same orbit
moons density is much lower
earths core holds almost a third of its own mass and the moon holds about 3%
moons surface is very dry unlike the earths
every massive object has an invisible surrounding sphere inside of which gravitational forces are too great for a satellite to form
tides were much more violent 4.5 billion years ago
-Late heavy bombardment ends
-Continents growing (due to melting of oceanic crust)
-First evidence of life
-Abundant evidence on Mars of liquid flowing on the planet’s surface
-25-30% less sunlight (Faint Sun Paradox)
Ordovician Period: 488-444 m.y.
· Island Arc Strikes Laurentia
o Taconic Orogeny (1st Appalachian orogeny)
· Gondwana still around
· Invertebrates rule: trilobites, graptolites, brachiopods dominant
· Colonization of land: 1st animals
· Ordovician Mass Extinction
Colonization of land: 1st animals
o 1st evidence: (spore fossils) for land plants, evolved from algae, resembling liverworts
Ordovician Mass Extinction
o 2nd largest of five events in Phanerozoic (in terms of % of genera)> 100 families of invertebrates.
o Ends period
Dramatic cooling, evidence of glaciations on Gondwana
Silurian Period: 444-416 m.y.
· Tippencanoe transgression peaks
· Eurypterids (sea scorpions) common
· First jawed vertebrates (fish)
· First land plant fossils
Devonian Period: 416-359 m.y.
· Acadian Orogeny (2nd Appalachian)
· Kaskaskia transgression
· Diversification of fish
· First plants with seeds & first forests by the end (gymnosperms)
· 2nd mass extinction event
· First vertebrates on land
· Gondwana closing in
· Top preditor: Dunkleosteus (Placeoderm) ~20 ft long
· Fish intermediate: Tetrapod
-Amphibians: vertebrate invade land
-First Forrests and Seeds
-Devonian mass extinction
Acadian Orogeny (2nd Appalachian)
o Terrane: Exotic land added to continent
o Avalonia volcanic arc (micro-continent; like Japan)
o Baltica hit (Europe craton)
Devonian: “Age of Fish”
1. Ostracoderms: jawless fish (lampreys today)
2. Acanthodians (1st in Silurian): first jaws
· Vertebrate jaw: modified gill arches
3. Placoderms (1st in Silurian): scary amored, jawed fish
4. Cartilagenous (1st Devonian): sharks, rays, skates today
5. Osteichhtyes: Bony fish
· Ray finned fish (tuna, trout, salmon today)
· Lobe finned fish (coelacanth today)<