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looks like alligator/tetrapod- Tiktaalik is a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods.
the largest and most successful group of fishes and make up half of all living vertebrates. One the first fish with bone. Small series of bones outward creating a fin.True bone, true teeth fused with jaw bone
These small shelly animals were millimeters in size and represent the first appearance of diverse skeletal material in the fossil record, some 10 million years before the first trilobites appear in the fossil record. oldest known metazoans (animals) had mineralized (skeletal) hard parts, and thus are the probable ascendants to the many phyla of the Cambrian Explosion.
The first appearance of skeletonized taxa in the rock record
1. Retention of juvenile characteristics in the adults of a species, as among certain amphibians.2. The attainment of sexual maturity by an organism still in its larval stage.
the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.
- the concept that the natural laws that are in place today have always been laws throughout time
the first four limbed vertebrates and their descendentsIsua, Greenland
- species fit into their environment
-examines nature to see gods work
- species were created perfect and unchanging- all extinctions were caused by Noahs flood
- there is little to no variation within a species
natural selection: the process by which, only the organisms best adapted to their environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic characteristics in increasing numbers to generations while those less adapted tend to be eliminateddescent with modification: shared similar structures show ancestral connections; descendents from a common parent; explains the grouping of all organic beings
By the end of the Eocene Epoch, cooler climate lead to the extinction of ____________________.
many prosimian species
long gestation periods for animals of their size
Which of the following statements is true about the New World monkeys?
The earliest primates evolved about _____________ years ago.
50-55 million years ago
The sifakas of Madagascar are known for their unusual ability to:
jump more than 30 feet (9 m.) from tree to tree
Which of the following happened to prosimians during the Oligocene Epoch?
They became scarce in most regions
Identify this Primate. Hint: note the large eyes and prominent snout.
Identify this primate. Hint: it is VERY small and has a prehensil (long, grasping) tail
Identify this primate. Hint: it is closely related to humans
Ape - Chimpanzee
What are the two main clades (orders) of Primates?
Prosimii and Anthropoidea
The only living descendent of the Sivapithecus lineage is ___________.
The first ape, Proconsul, evolved in ______________, but _____________ was the birthplace of the apes that gave rise to the great ape and human clade.
Europe _________ Africa
Both Dryopithecus and Sivapithecus lineages are rooted in ______________, but ___________ migrated to Africa and ____________ migrated to Asia.
Europe --------- Dryopithecus -------Sivapithecus
What caused the extinction of most the Miocene Apes?
Climate change led to the replacement of forests with woodlands and grasslands
What a primitive Miocene ape, is thought to have been the last common ancestor of the living hominoids?
This animal lived about 200,000 - 28,000 years ago. Who is it? ( http://humanorigins.si.edu )
Which species hunted sea food such as seals and shellfish?
Did Neanderthals and Homo sapiens interbreed? (look at the most recent data)
Male and females ambushed hunted mainly large, relatively solitary mammals
Rapid changes in climate
What gave the Homo sapiens the edge over Neanderthals?
The diet of Homo sapiens was ___________ than Neanderthals, who eat mainly ___________.
Neanderthals ( Homo neanderthalensis )
What was different about Ar. ramidus compared to earlier hominids?
What was the diet of this animal?
it ate plants and nuts
A sharp increase in Hominin brain size over the last 800,000 years, coincided with __________________.
Period of the great worldwide climate fluctuation when planning and problem-solving were increasingly important
. afarensis, Lucy’s 3.18-million-year-old skeleton has a humanlike hip bone and knee joints coupled with long apelike arms, longer grasping fingers than in humans, and flexible feet. This mixture of skeletal features means that “Lucy” ___________
Could Walk and climb
Adapted to different environments
Of the following which one is not a benefit of Hominins making stone tools?
Decreased the diversity of the diet by increasing the size of the animals killed
What species show the oldest evidence for walking upright, on two legs?
How did Neanderthals and modern humans different in the ways they dealt with environmental fluctuation and the survival challenges it poses?
Homo sapiens made specialized tools
Homo sapiens exchanged goods over a long distance
The earliest hominin species had ______________ diet and they had ______________________.
Plant-based ---- short bodies and long guts
This animal combined tree-climbing and bipedal activity, and lived about 4.4 million years ago. Who is this?
This animal lived 6-7 million years ago. Who is this? Could it walk up-right?
Sahelanthropus ----- Yes
This species lived between about 1.89 million and 70,000 years ago. Who is this long-lived species?
Of the following which species was the best hunter?
What is the first hominid that relied on stone tools to obtain food and butcher meat?
How did the males of this species interact?
Males fought for access to ovulating females
Females selected their mates
What is so special about the Laetoli trackway?
It showed that A. afarnesis walked up-right.
Who was the closest ancestor of this animal, a Cro-magnon (Homo sapiens) ?
Who used these 30,000 - 23,000 years old needles to make cloths?
Of the following who was the best tree climber?
It used fire and used wooden spears, and it was the first early human species to routinely hunt large animals. Who is it?
This animal lived between 3.85 and 2.95 million years ago in Eastern Africa. This animal had a powerful chest and strong upper arm muscles necessary for tree climbing and an upright body and stride for walking.
As early as 32,000 years ago, our species demonstrated which capabilities?
How do we know Sahelanthropus walked upright?
The position of the foramen magnum on the underside of the cranium which indicates that the head was held upright.
This species, one of the earliest members of the genus Homo, has a slightly larger braincase and smaller face and teeth than in Australopithecus. This species was thought to represent the first stone-tool maker.
This animal is the oldest known early humans to have possessed modern human-like body proportions with relatively elongated legs and shorter arms compared to the size of the torso. Who is it?
Grazing on the extensive grasslands of during the Miocene (25 to 15 Ma)
Lived in forests
Short crowned teeth
This a tooth whale (Odontoceti) and it is able to echolocate
This animal "hears" with the assistance of its lower jaw bone and a dense bone called a bulla
Low jaw bone developed a fat-filled canal to conduct sound back to the middle ear
reduction of the hind-limbs
modification of the forelimbs and hands into flippers
development of a massive tail
After leaving the Galapagos Islands, Darwin begin to examine the finches and he was
Darwin considered that this aspect of the natural history of Galapagos Islands to be by far the most remarkable and unexpected discovery of the trip. What was so remarkable and unexpected?
they shouldn't be there because the Galapagos is located on the equator and fur seals live in low latitudes and in much colder environments.
-but makes sounds heard up to 3000mi
small, nocturnal, laid eggs, larger brains than cynodonts. eggs depended on parental care
-Mammals had full separation of jaw and ear= 3 middle ear bones- reptiles 1-- this developed highly sensitive hearing so mamals were active in the dark
-also grew fur and mammalary glands
How are monotremes, marsupials and placentals different
first is platypus- egg laying mammals (monotremes). second two give live birth. difference between marsupials and placentals are marsupials have a short gestation period, but long nursing period. Placentals have a long gestation period. Babies are almost fully developed when born and have a short nursing period.
The inner ear is what makes a mammal, a mammal. we have three ear bones in our ear which leads to great hearing. a reptile only has one. that bone comes from a fish jaw. We have one jaw bone and reptile’s have three. Bones in our ear- one comes from fish, other two come from reptiles.
were herbivores. about the same time (late triassic) they were evolving at the same time. very rodent like. Early mammals are very early rodent like. they were the first globally successful group of mammals
quartz crystal that due to extreme impact, internal structure has shifted. We cannot physically do this, has to come from forces beyond this. Something like a meteorite crash onto earth could form this type of quartz.
Why does the iridium anomaly point to a meteorite impacting the earth?
very common on astroids. something brought it from someplace else because it does not occur naturally on our surface. Biggest piece of evidence that SOMETHING happened.
What are causes of the long term swing between hot house and ice house conditions?
there was an ocean circulation that went around the equator, making the equator very warm and wet. Our whole planet was warm and wet. as time went on Africa moved up and slammed into Europe, forming the Alps. Antartica is very cold at the bottom because it is far from the equator. Due to circulation being less, Antartica became very cold. because of these close offs the ocean couldn’t circulate from the equator as much leaving waters further away way colder. the gulf stream is bringing warm moist water up into a cold region. warm water cooling down creates condensation. that condensation starts to cool and freeze creating ice
As long as dinosaurs were dominate on the planet, mammals stayed very small. Once dinosaurs were gone, mammals were no longer restricted to living nocturnally or in trees/underground. led to a totally adaptive radiation that led to diversifying (this is replacement). Displacement. Mammals didn’t out compete the dinosaurs, they just took over when they were gone. Displacement would be something like “out fighting” something until they were wiped out from the planet. Mammals did not displace dinosaurs.
-shorter to longer legs
-forest feeding - mixture feeding - grassland feeding
- grass type changed over time from c3 (soft vegetation) to c4 (tough, high silica content, wear down teeth enamel)
(baleen whales- Oligocene: evolved when climate cooled and oceans become more productive with krill)
(toothed whales: echolocation)
800,000 years ago climate changed; Africa population almost went extinct
Climate Change Event
they laid eggs and suckled their hatchlings
Idenify this Primate. HINT: note the size of the animals.
Dryopithecus skull resembles that of a __________ chimpanzee and they are ancestor to _______________.
juvenile ------ African apes and humans.
Early apes traveled along tree branches __________ whereas modern African Ape adaptations to
on all fours ---------- on the ground—knuckle walking
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