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How has sea level changed over the last few thousand years?
It has risen about 10 cm per century
Winslow Homer, The Army of the Potomac-A Sharpshooter on Picket Duty, engraving in Harper’s Weekly, November 15, 1862
Eastman Johnson, The Pension Claim Agent, 1867
- a heart-wringer that depicts the visit of a pension agent to the home of an amputee veteran.
Winslow Homer, In Front of Yorktown, 1862-63
-focuses on the experience of a solitary figure - the pensive solider in the center
Winslow Homer, Weaning the Calf, 1875
-this need for sweet nostalgia in postwar society.
-the work of weaning the calf contrasting with the play of an after-school game
James Henry Cafferty, The Weary Newsboy, 1861
-with many more papers to peddle, leans dejectedly against a wooden box, knowing he can't go anywhere until he sells them
-These street children, dependent on their wits and their work for support, deliver a message that's hard to ignore.
William Michael Harnett, Job Lot Cheap, 1878
-The range of unrelated volumes demonstrates the booksellers’ practice of gathering random unsold titles and offering the entire group (the “job lot”) at a discounted price (“cheap”).
Edward Lansom Henry, Capital and Labor, 1881
- Missus is visiting the servants’ quarters, and the help has gone entrepreneurial.
-They’ve got a mutt on a treadmill, rigged up to a Rube Goldberg machine that churns milk. Lest anyone applaud Henry’s surrealist imagination, the gallery label reports that a Dog-Powered Butter Churn was patented in 1871. Henry’s depiction is near-exact.
John Harrison Mills, Artist Painting a Satirical Painting, c. 1870s–1880s
-The satire might be simply about artists and the kind of fluff they have to produce to impress patrons.
-Painted in small white letters over each of the hero’s armored opponents is a label. One is “Rent,” another “Bills,” and a third, on the one who looks most likely to deal the death blow, is “Taxes.”
Alfred Kappes, Tattered and Torn, 1886–87
-depicts an African-American woman wearing a dress patched together from rags — she looks utterly exhausted.
-She is concentrating so carefully on lighting this match to light her pipe as though it were the one small pleasure remaining.
Memorial Hall, Centennial Exhibition, 1876, Philadelphia, photograph
Carl Conrads and George Keller, The American Volunteer, 1876, at the Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia
Thomas Waterman Wood, A Bit of War History: The Recruit, 1866
Henry Humphrey’s Moore’s Philadelphia studio with Almeh,Dream of Alhambra, from Frank Leslie’s Popular Monthly 19 (May 1886)
Peter Frederick Rothermel, Battle of Gettysburg, 1876, detail
-courted controversy by including critical leaders and events of the battle in one comprehensive scene rather than portraying a literal recreation of a particular moment in combat.
-Perhaps the most prominent example of this approach is Rothermel's depiction of General Meade who appears on the left-hand side of the picture, even though Meade was not on the battlefield at the moment of Pickett's Charge.
Winslow Homer, The Dinner Horn, 1870
John Rogers, Is It So Nominated in the Bond?, 1860
John Rogers, Why Don’t You Speak for Yourself, John, 1884
-when Alden has come to press the suit of his captain, Miles Standish. Alden's heart is heavy because of his own love for Priscilla
Winslow Homer, Hark! The Lark, 1882
Winslow Homer, The Fox Hunt, 1893
-The subject is very novel, and requires a word of explanation as to the fact in natural history of which it is a dramatic illustration. In the depths of winter, when the ground is for long intervals covered with snow along the coast of Maine, it is observed that a flock of half-starved crows will have the temerity to attack a fox, relying on their advantage of numbers, the weakened condition of the fox and the deep snow, which makes it the more difficult for the victim to defend himself.
Winslow Homer, Spring Farm Work—Grafting, 1870, illustration in Harper’s Weekly, April 20, 1870
-The technique of grafting is a way to encourage the growth of a fragile plant by melding it with a sturdier specimen. It is also sometimes used to produce a hybridization of two types of the same species. The form of grafting Homer illustrated here is called “top-worked” or a “cleft graft,” indicating the replacement of the top of one plant with buds of another.
Winslow Homer, The Life Line, 1884
-draws on the traditional shipwreck scenario--mountainous waves, wind and spray, a helpless vessel, and a desperate human struggle--with an original, modern perspective.
Winslow Homer, Snap the Whip, 1872
-Children embodied innocence and the promise of America's future and were depicted by many artists and writers during the 1870s.
-reminisces about rural simplicity and reflects on the challenges of the complex post–Civil War world.
Winslow Homer, Hound And Hunter, 1892
- lying behind the boy, a rifle that the artist later painted out. When this final canvas was exhibited in 1892, its subject was condemned as a cruel sport then practiced in the Adirondacks. Some viewers believed the youth was drowning the deer to save ammunition. The artist curtly responded, “The critics may think that that deer is alive but he is not—otherwise the boat and man would be knocked high and dry.”
To clarify that the stag is already dead and no longer struggling, however, Homer did repaint the churning water to hide more of the animal. The hunter, therefore, simply ties up a heavy load, calling off the hound so it will not jump into the boat and swamp it.
John Singer Sargent, Madame X (Madame Pierre Gautreau), 1883–84
-Virginie Avegno (1859–1915) was born in Louisiana, the daughter of Major Anatole Avegno of New Orleans, a gentleman whose family had emigrated from Camogli, Italy, and Marie Virginie de Ternant of Parlange Plantation, Louisiana. After Major Avegno died of wounds suffered at the Battle of Shiloh, Mrs. Avegno took her daughters to Paris. There Virginie became a celebrated beauty and married Pierre Gautreau, a Parisian banker. Sargent probably met her in 1881. In 1882, he wrote of wanting to paint her portrait. He worked on the portrait at the Gautreau's summer home in Brittany in 1883, but he had difficulty finding a suitable pose and perspective. Numerous studies show his different attempts at the composition. The portrait as finally executed was exhibited at the Paris Salon of 1884 as "Portrait de Mme ***" and created a scandal. Sargent considered it one of his best works; an unfinished second version of the same pose is in the Tate Gallery in London.
Mary Cassatt, Modern Woman, mural, 1892–93, Woman’s Building, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago
Mary Cassatt, At the Opera, 1879
-Responding to a painting by another artist, Cassatt's subject is austerely dressed, in black, unaccompanied, and clearly the spectator as she holds the opera glasses to her eyes--note also the symbolism of the closed fan in her left hand (a fan was a female "instrument," used as a type of feminine language--more refined than actually speaking).
Burnham & Root, Court of Honor, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
Robert Henri, Eva Green, 1907
--Father got in a fight, murdered a man, had to move, changed name to middle name, and changed how to say it like rye-Studies art, likes drawing, goes to Philadelphia for art, studies in Europe, influenced by academic style and impressionism
Everett Shinn, Early Morning, Paris, 1901
George Luks, Hester Street, 1905
-One of the dynamic, young group of American Realists known as the Ashcan School, George Luks was a tough character who in art and life embraced the gritty side of turn-of-the-century New York. In this important early work, Luks pictured the street life of one of the Lower East Side's teeming immigrant neighborhoods. By 1905, Hester Street had become home to a recently arrived population of Eastern European Jews and the site of a daily open-air market where thousands shopped for their necessities. Hester Street thus provided the type of unvarnished urban subject to which Luks was particularly drawn, and one from which New Yorkers accustomed to genteel shops and formal public etiquette would have recoiled. At the same time, these subjects held an exotic appeal for those intrigued by how the other half lived. As was his practice, Luks probably executed rapid on-site sketches in pencil or charcoal before turning to work on the painting. He would have completed the canvas with rapid spontaneity, working out both composition and details in the process.
George Luks, Thompson and Bleecker Streets, 1907
- wants to find a form that leaves the spirit intact
- give a sense of life happening
-Immediacy and sense of movement
- loose brushwork gives a sense of fluidity
- perspective is pronounced
- eastern immigrants peddling their wares are foreshortened
- we often see things in a blur, cropped, we are walking and have to evaluate all that falls into our gaze
- ash can art – urban realists…
- person in window also gazing on the aspect of urban life
-area where eastern immigrants gathered at a point, very common in that time where commerce took place- lower east side capitalism
-subject of paintings emphasis that painting is an ash can painting
Everett Shinn, The Docks, New York City, 1901
- Very Ash Can
- Gives both formal and iconical explanation on what ash can could possibly mean
- One of the early pastels showing two conversing on the docks
- Barrels bound by tin used for storing things
- Docks are covered in snow, its cold outside shown by overcoats and scarfs
- The docks are all business, dollies for boxes, heavy, a place of work
- He retains loose patching and mark making to create onsite drawings
- This shows dirty individuals, the entire view seems filtered
- Looseness of line helps give sense of dirt and disarray
John Sloan, Movies, Five Cents, 1907
-low expense of different classes and ages and races
-individual is turned back toward us to acknowledge towards us what is happening
John Sloan, Hairdresser’s Window, 1907
-Several visual spectacles
- very painterly showing immediacy
-close to you and in your space
-expressions not forced or canned, smiling or gasping
-ash can painting bc of cast of characters provided
George Bellows, A Stag at Sharkey’s, 1909
-Billy Sunday- hyperbolic and shouted/ precursor to modern televangelist
-build tabernacles and have a revival for a month or two and then tore them down – Sawdust Trail
-False religious, saw more so as an entertainment factor
-interested in sights and sounds of urban spectacle