Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
is the porous unit or layer of rock that is able to store or hold water and transmit enough fluid to be of economic value.
is a unit of rock or layer of rock, which is impermeable to fluids. It acts as a barrier to fluid flow. There probably are no true aquicludes
when an aquifer is bounded by two (2) aquitards (one
above and one below)
Why is the name water table slightly misleading?
What rock types make good aquifers? Aquitards?
breakdown or decompostiton of rock that takes place when minerals are changed into different substances
the removal and transport of materials by natural agents such as wind and running water
a soil layer with physical and chemical properites that differ from those of adjacent soil layers
loose, weathered rock and organic material in which plants with roots can grow
What aare the 3 main types of chemical weathering?
Solution- Rock dissolves by the actions of carbonic acid in water.
Oxidation- rock breaks down when oxygen atoms carried by water combine with iron in the rock.
Hydrolosis- rock breaks down when h+ atoms carried by water substitue for other atoms in the rock
chemical reaction of oxygen with other substances
a cross section of soil layers that displays all soil horizons
breakup of rock due to exposure to processes that occur at or near earths surface.
A hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor that emits a black cloud of hot water filled with dissolved metal particles.
Explosives, large power shovels, etc
Remove top of mountains to find coal
What is saltwater encroachment and why does it occur?
Septic systems are not ideally designed for areas like southwest Missouri. Describe why this is the
What processes increase chemical weathering rates?
What are the processes involved in soil formation (genesis)?
What are some problems associated with all soils? Which is most problematic?
What techniques are used to prevent soil erosion?
What is the difference between a mineral deposit and reserve?
What could cause a mineral deposit to become a mineral reserve?
How is a placer gold deposit formed?
What are some specific environmental effects involved with mining? Which is most problematic?
axial obliquity (tilt)
compounds containing only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine. In the past they were heavily used for a wide variety of commercial applications, including as refrigerants, propellants, in the production of foam insulation, as fire-fighting materials, and many other useful applications. They were sold under the trade name “Freons.”
Both NOx andSO2can react with water in the atmosphere to form droplets of acid, but SO2emissions have been the principal cause of acid rain
rainwater that contains usually high amounts of acids that can be traced back to pollutants, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen compouds, and carbon dioxide
Solarradiation reflected or reradiated by Earth’s surface is absorbed by greenhousegases and warms the atmosphere. The warmed atmosphere reemits radiation back toEarth, causing surface warming.
What are the common air pollutants controlled by the EPA and what produces them?
What drives the various climatic regimes present on the Earth?
What evidence is there that global climate change has occurred in the past?
Describe the driving force behind atmospheric circulation cells.
Describe the driving force behind deep ocean circulation (the “heat conveyor belt”).
What are the major drivers of climate change?
Describe the three components of Milankovitch cycles(include the length of each cycle).
AxialObliquity = 41,000 year cycles
Orbital Eccentricity = 100,000 year cycles
Axial Precession = 22,000 year cycles
What are the effects of global warming, and what evidence is there that it is occurring?
Why are there major deserts at 30° N and 30° S latitude?
Describe why we have seasons.
How is heat transported from warmer areas on the planet to colder areas?
What climatic factors change the way this heat is transported?
are the remains of plants and animals trapped in sediments that can be used for fuels.
Peat => Lignite => Bituminous => Anthracite
This is the natural progression of coal asit experiences higher degrees ofmetamorphism and impurities are volatilized.
Therefore, higher grades of coal produce moreenergy per unit mass.
Once oil has been pumped by normalmethods, a great deal of it (as much as 75%) still remains in the ground. Secondaryrecovery methodsare used to extract much of this remaining oil.
involves pumping steam, air, carbondioxide, water or various chemicals into the reservoir using injectionwells.The fluids push remaining oil toward the extractionwells,which pump it out.
Secondary recovery often extractsmore oil than was extracted by the initial pumping.
The oil sands are loose sand or partially consolidated sandstone containing naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum. Largest reserve in Alberta Canada.
What percentage of the energy used by the world arerenewable? Nonrenewable? Oil, Coal, and natural gas?
What are the first 2 steps required for petroleum and natural gasformation?
1. Large amounts of organicmatterneed to accumulate, generally on the floor of some ancient ocean or large lakethat was rich in life. Dead organisms rain down to the bottom of the ocean orlake and accumulate over many years.
2. These organic-rich sedimentsneed to be buried, sothat temperature and pressure can transform the organic matter into petroleum.This petroleum-rich rock is called a sourcerock.
3. The petroleum needs to migrateout of the source rock into a porous and permeable reservoirrock,from which it can be pumped out.
4. The petroleum needs to betrapped undergroundin the reservoir rock by a rock layer called a caprock --an impermeable layer that will prevent the petroleum from leaking upward andescaping.
What conditions are needed in order to form a petroleumtrap?
What types of traps are there for petroleum?
What rock types make the best petroleum reservoirs? Caprocks?
What countries in the world have the largest petroleumreserves?
What techniques are used to “produce” oil from a petroleum reservoir?
At current usage rates, how long will our known petroleum reserves last?
What other sources of fossil fuels might become economically feasible in the future?
What are the environmental costs of using fossil fuels as an energy source?
What are the major forms of alternative energy? Which of them are renewable?
Which alternative energy resources might be usable in southwest Missouri?
What are the positives and negatives of each type of alternative energy?
How is electricity produced from nuclear energy?
What are the major downfalls to using nuclear energy as a source?
Oilpools at the top of the anticline & is trapped by a seal rock.
How are the major components of petroleum grouped?
How does coal form? What are the different types and how do they differ?
What is the current plan for dealing with stockpiles ofradioactive waste?
An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons. The atom or group has more or less protons than it has electrons
Ex. Hydrogen H+
It is the part of a continent, especially the submerged part (the continental rise, slope, and shelf), next to the deep-ocean basin (oceanic crust).
the result of volcanoes creating a string of islands formed at oceanic oceanic plate boundaries
Lesser Antiles. Caribbean plate. Old plate gets subducted.
form as lava cools at a mid-ocean ridge.
Definiton: Occurs when chemical reactions dissolve or alter the minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals.
Fact: Occurs near the Earth's surface.
breakdown of rock that takes place when a rock is broken into smalled pieces of the same material. without changing its compostion
mechanical weathering process in which water freezes in the cracks of a rock and wedges apart
water in ground freezes and lifts the ground, then water thaws causing the ground to collapse and leave a hole
the wearing away of rock material by grinding action
the peeling surface layers from exposed bedrock
the chemical reaction of water with other substances
substances that release hydrogen ions in water
rock material from which soil is formed
soil whose parent material is the local bedrock beneath it
soil that is formed from parent material left by winds, rivers, or glaciers or soil that itself was moved from its original location
the b horizon of soil, contains clay and iron oxides washed from the topsoil
the downslope transportation of large masses of earth materials by gravity
rapid movement of a mass of bedrock or loose soil and rock down the slope of a hill, mountain, or cliff.
the slow, often imperceptible, movement of soil down a slope.
a mass movement in which a block of land tilts and moves downhill along a surface that curves into a slope
the downslope movement of a mass of earth materials that have been saturated with water.
the downslope movement of water that contains large amounts of suspended clay and silt.
a fast moving mudflow that occurs when the heat associated with a volcanic eruption melts snow and ice on top of a volcano
the solidified lava filling the central vent of an extinct volcano
the ability of soil to grow plants
the process by which soil gradually becomes so lacking or depleted in nutrients that it can no longer grow a crop
bringing in water to dry enviorments in order to grow crops
a soil condition caused by the evaporation t irrigation water, which leaves too Much mineral matter on the soils surface for crops to grow.
communication increase= uncertainty decrease.
reduction of uncertainty = increase in verbal communication.
Uncertainty= decrease in intamacy
Low uncertainty = increases intamacy
uncertainty: high reprocity
Low uncertainty= low reprocity
People avoid info that would create CD because it's imcompatible with their current beliefs
Creates a need for reassurance.
Strong doubts experienced after making an inportant decision that is difficult to reverse
Induces a shift in attitude.
A calm that the best way to stimulate an attitude change in other is to offer just enough incentive to elicit counterattitudinal behavior
a struggle to defend the faith, "holy war"
consists of a gaseous, liquid and semi-solid substances occurring naturally and consisting chiefly of chemical compounds of carbon and hydrogen
soft, brownish-black coal that forms the lowest level of the coal family. You can even see the texture of the original wood in some pieces of lignite found west of the Mississippi River in the U.S.
Next up the scale is subbituminous coal, a dull black coal. It gives off a little more energy (heat) than lignite when it burns. It is mined mostly in Montana, Wyoming and a few other western states.
this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp, a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions.
the hardest coal and gives off a great amount of heat when it burns. Unfortunately, in the United States, as elsewhere in the world, there is little anthracite coal to be mined. The U.S. reserves of anthracite are located primarily in Pennsylvania.
also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) . U.S. deposits in UT and CO
natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary for production
or methane clathrate. A large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice. Significant deposits occur the shallow marine geosphere.
produced from fission (breakdown) of the nucleus of an unstable isotope of an atom such as uranium with the resultant release of a large amount of energy. The energy released can be captured and used to run conventional steam or electric power generation systems.
Bombarding uranium atoms with neutrons
can induce a fission chain reaction that is self-sustaining and produces large amounts of energy
destroy the ability to moderate energy generation in a reactor leading to the possibility of an explosion capable of releasing high levels of radiation to the unshielded environment around a reactor
results when the heat flow from fission reactions in a nuclear reactor becomes too high, resulting in melting of the nuclear fuel and its containment vessel.