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a market-based system to manage enviornamtal pollutants where a total limit is placed on all emissions in a jurisdiction (state, country, worldwide) & individual people or firms possess transferable shares of that total, theoretically leading to the most efficient overall system to maintain & reduce pollution levels overall.
a market-based system to manage environmental pollutants where a total limit is placed on all emissions in a jurisdiction (state, country, worldwide) and individual people or firms possess transferable shares of that total, theoretically leading to the most efficient overall system to maintain & reduce pollution levels overall.
an ethical standpoint that views humans as central factor in considerations of right & wrong action in & toward nature.
an ethical standpoint that views humans as the central factor in considerations of right & wrong action in & toward nature.
an environmental ethical stance that argues that ecological concerns should, over & above human priorities, be central to decisions about right & wrong action.
arising from the book of genesis, the dominion thesis states that humans are the pinnacle of creation & humans are granted ethical free rein to use nature in any way deemed beneficial.
a natural parcel of land, more or less unaffected by human forces.
· Increasing, wilderness is viewed as a social construction.
a parcel of land, more or less unaffected by human forces.
· Viewed as social construction
: a philosophy of enviornamtal ethics that distances itself from “shallow” or mainstream environmentalism by arguing for a “deeper” & supposedly more truly ecologically-informed view of the world.
the theoretical limit of population (animals, human) that a system can sustain and support.
a model that predicts economic responses to scarcity of a resource will lead to increases in prices that will result either in decreased demand for that resource or increased supply, or both.
rules & norms governing collective action, especially referring to rules governing common-property environmental resources, like rivers, oceans, or the atmosphere.
describes the tendency for capitalism to eventual undermine the economic conditions for its own perpetuation, through overproduction of commodities, reduction of wages for would-be-consumers, predicted to eventually lead to responses by workers to resist capitalism leading to a new form of economy.
describes the tendency for capitalism to eventually undermine the environmental conditions for its own perpetuation, through degradation of natural resources or damage to the health of workers. It’s predicted to lead to environmentalist & workers’ movements to resist capitalism, leading to a new form of economy.
In Marxist thought, this describes the tendency for capitalism to eventually under mind the environmental conditions for its own perpetuation, through degradation of natural resources or damage to the health of workers, ext.Predicted to eventually lead to environmentalist & workers’ movements to resist capitalism, leading to a new form of economy
in Marxist thought, this describes the tendency for capitalism to eventually undermine the environmental conditions for its own perpetuation, through degradation of natural resources or damage to the health of workers & is predicted to eventually lead to environmentalist & workers’ movements to resist capitalism, leading to a new form of economy.
a condition in the economy where capital becomes concentrated in very few hands (such as the wealthy) or firms causing economic slowdown & potential socioeconomic crisis. Caused by either overproduction (too much being made to be bought in a reasonable amount of time) or underconsumption (consumers aren’t buying products at a sufficient rate to clear the market).
the direct appropriation by capitalists of natural resources or goods from communities that historically tend to hold them collectively.
In Marxist thought, the direct appropriation by capitalists of natural resources or goods from communities that historically tend to hold from collectively.
the tendency of capitalism to temporarily solve its inevitable periodic crises by establishing new markets, new resources, and new sites of production in other places.
What is the general process behind Marxist political capitalism?
1. Primitive accumulation occurs, putting a collective good in the hands of capitalists
2. People must sell their labor, and nature and labor become bound together
3. Capitalists owns means and conditions of production. Main goal is to make surplus money
4. They try to cut expenses, reduces wages, expand markets, and abuse resources.
5. Leads to crisis and rebellion of capitalism
1. Political approach views exploitation as a part of capitalism
2. Spatial fixes help to reduce this
1. Nature is a product of our social process
2. Our idea of nature shapes how we relate to it
written & spoken communication.
· Statements & texts are not mere representations of a material word, but rather power-embedded constructions that make the world we live in.
1. America was a sparsely populated wilderness
2. Pristine myth- Idea that Americas was a virgin as it is pristine and empty of people. The people there were savages.
1. Native populations decline after conquest
2. Biblical notions of New World of Eden
3. Myth of emptiness
*Social context is strongly shaped by Euro-American discourse of pre-columbian natures
1. Wilderness has a culturally specific meaning that changes over time
a. 20th century turned view of wilderness as something beautiful and valued
2. Wilderness is materially constructed
a. creation of wilderness involves violent displacement of people
b. wilderness is reproduced by rules, regulations, and management plans
1. Liquid hydrocarbons that are part of the decomposition of organic matter
2. Used for energy, waterproofing, lubrication, in synthetic materials
1. Sea level rise
2. Melting glaciers
3. Arctic sea ice loss
1. Species loss and migration
2. Agricultural production and food scarcity
3. Land use and human settlement
1. Money spent to reduce emissions may disadvantage countries and lead to free riding of others
2. Responsibility of carbon dioxide is not shared equally
3. No effective authority to enforce agreements
What occured in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC)
1. Tried to stabilize GHG concentrations to prevent climate change
2. Nations signed voluntarily to reduce their emissions
3. Responsibilities were common but differentiated
1. GHG reductions obligations for industrialized countries
2. Reduce emissions by 5% from 1990's levels
3. Flexible and weak commitments
4. Clean Development Mechanism
1. adaptation-preparing societies to adjust to climate change (relocation)
2. Geoengineering- Conteracting climate change through different technical measures
1. Export of resources from poorer regions to wealthier ones may lead to deforestation in the latter
2. Forest transition and growth in one country may depend on forest loss in others
3. Shaped by global economy
1. Less ungulates-more willow-beavers use willows to make dams-dams support aquatic life
2. Wolves leave carcasses-feeds scavengers-fertilizes soil
a condition of growth where the rate is mathematically proportional to the current value, leading to continued, non-linear increase of the quantity.
· In population, this refers to a state of increasingly accelerated & compound growth, w/ecological implications for scarcity.
present-day adherents to a position established by Malthus in the 19th century that population growth outstrips limited natural resources & presents the single greatest driver of environmental degradation & crisis.
based in the theory that income inequality will increase during economic development & decrease after reaching a state of overall affluence, this theory predicts that enviornamtal impacts rise during development, only to fall after an economy matures.
a model that predicts a period of deforestation in a region during development, when the forest is a resource or land is cleared for agriculture, followed by a return of forest when the economy changes and population out-migrates &/or becomes conservation oriented.
the theoretical spatial extent of the earth’s surface required to sustain an individual group, system, organization.
· An index of environmental impact.
a form of agriculture that clears & burns forest areas to release nutrients for cropping.
· Also known as “swidden”.
· This method is highly extensive, typically rotating through areas of forest land for short periods of use, allowing previously used for forest land to recover.
a suite of technological innovations, developed in universities & international research centers, which were applied to agriculture between the 1950’s & 1980’s & increased agricultural yields dramatically, but w/a concomitant rise in chemical inputs (fertilizers & pesticides) as well as increased demands for water & machinery.
a condition in a population where the number of births matches the number of deaths & therefore there is no net increase.
· An idealized condition for those concerned about overpopulation.
a measure of mortality in a population, typically expressed as the number of deaths per thousand population per year.
a measure of natural growth in a population, typically expressed as the number of births per thousand population per year.
A model of population change that predicts a decline in population death rates associated w/modernization, followed by a decline in birth rates resulting from industrialization & urbanization.
· This creates a sigmoidal curve where population growth increases rapidly for a period, then levels off.
a measure describing the average number of children birthed by an average statistical woman during her reproductive lifetime.
a model that predicts economic responses to scarcity of a resource will lead to increases in prices that will result either in decreased demand for that resource or increased supply, or both.
the somewhat counterintuitive observation, rooted in modern economic theory that a technology that increases the efficiency of resource use actually increases rather than decreases the rate of consumption of that resource.
a thesis based in neoclassical economics, holding that externalities (pollution) can be most efficiently controlled through contracts & bargaining between parties, assuming the transaction costs of reaching a bargain are not excessive.
a situation of condition where the production or exchange of a good or service is not efficient.
· Refers to arrange of perverse economic outcomes stemming from market problems like monopoly or uncontrolled externalities.
in economics, the cost associated w/making an exchange or negotiating a price.
· While most economic models assume low transaction costs, in reality these costs can be quite high, especially for systems with high externalities.
a market condition where there is one seller for many buyers, leading to perverted & artificially inflated pricing of goods or services.
a market condition where there is on buyer for many sellers, leading to perverted & artificially deflated pricing of goods or services.
the exaggerated or false marketing of a product, good, or service as environmentally friendly.
programs to certify commodities for the purposes of assuring their ecological credentials, such as organically grown vegetables or sustainably harvested wood products.
: an allegorical description of a game theoretical situation in which multiple individuals making decisions in pursuit of their own interests tend to create collective outcomes that are non-optimal for everything.
a form of applied mathematics used to model and predict people’s behaviors in strategic situations where people’s choices are predicated on predicting the behavior of others.
A good or resource whose characteristics make it difficult to fully enclose & partition, making it possible for non-owners to enjoy resource benefits & owners to sustain costs form the actions of others, typically necessitating some form of creative institutional management.
A good or resource whose characteristics make it difficult to fully enclose & partition, making it possible for non-owners to enjoy resource benefits & owners to sustain costs from the actions of others, typically necessitating some form of creative institutional management.
the use of Darwinian evolutionary theory to explain social phenomena & individuals are viewed as naturally & inherently competitive & selfish beings, social Darwinism typically rationalizes war, poverty, & hierarchically stratified social systems.
intensive animal-raising agricultural operations.
· They attempt to maximize production by raising as many animals in as little space as possible, often resulting in significant air & water pollution.
the branch of philosophy dealing w/morality or questions of right & wrong human action in the world.
a principle as well as a body of thought & research, stressing the need for equitable distribution of environmental goods (parks, clean air) & environmental bads (pollution, hazards) between people, no matter their race, ethnicity, or gender.
a condition where unhealthful or dangerous conditions are disproportionately proximate to minority communities.
taking responsibility for the property or fate of others.
· Stewardship of land & natural resources is often used in a religious context such as “caring for creation”.
an ethical theory that posits that the value of a good should be judged solely by its usefulness to society.
· Following the 18th-19th century philosopher Jeremy Bentham, usefulness is equated w/maximizing pleasure or happiness & minimizing pain & suffering.
the management of a resource or system to sustain its productivity over time, typically associated w/scientific management of collective goods like fisheries or forests.
the management of a resource or environment for protection & preservation, typically for its own sake, as in wilderness preservation.
the scientific study of interactions amongst organisms & between organisms & the habitat or ecosystem in which they live.
an ethical principle stating that humans should extend their sphere of moral concern beyond the human realm.
· It’s argued that intelligent or sentient animals are worthy ethical subjects.
named after Peter Singer’s groundbreaking 1975 book, a radical social movement that aims to free all animals from use by humans, whether those uses are for food, medical testing, industry, personal adornment, entertainment or anything else.
any theory that holds that a whole system (earth) is more than the sum of its parts.
A philosophically invalid derivation of any ethical “ought” from a natural “is”.
usually deployed as a term of derision.
· Refers to an uncritical reliance on the natural sciences as the basis for social decision-making & ethical judgments.
a school thought & set of social movements, associated w/the thinker Murray Bookchin, asserting that environmental problems & crises are rooted in typical social structures & relationships since these tend to be hierarchical, state-controlled, & predicted on domination of both people & nature.
the degree to which the outcomes of a decision or situation are unknown.
a phenomenon, and related field of study, describing the tendency of people to evaluate the hazardousness of a situation or decision in not always rational terms, depending on the individual biases, culture, or human tendencies.
a phenomenon & related field of study, describing the tendency of people to evaluate the hazardousness of a situation or decision in not always rational terms, depending on individual biases, culture, or human tendencies.
a theoretical framework associated w/anthropologist Mary Douglas that stresses the way individual perceptions (of risk, for example) are reinforced by group social dynamics, leading to a few paradigmatic, typical, & discrete ways of seeing & addressing problems.
A principle as well as a body of thought & research stressing the need for equitable distribution of environmental goods (parks, clean air, healthful working conditions) & environmental bads (pollution, hazards, waste) between people no matter their race, ethnicity, or gender.
An object of economic value that is valued generically, rather than as a scientific object (pork is a commodity, rather than a pig).
In political economy thought, an object made for exchange.
in political economic thought, the infrastructure, equipment, & machinery are required to make things, goods, and commodities.
in political economic thought, the material or environmental conditions required for a specific economy to function, which may include things are varied as water for use in an industrial process to the health of workers to do the labor.
in political economic thought, the value produced by underpaying labor or over-extracting from the environment, which is accumulated by owners & investors.
In political economic & Marxist thought, the value produced by underpaying labor or over-extracting from the environment, which is accumulated by owners & investors.
the quality of a commodity that determines the quantity of other goods for which the commodity might be traded at a given moment.
the social relationships associated w/and necessary for a specific economy, as serf/knights are to feudalism & workers/owners are to modern capitalism.
that part of the economy, especially including household work, that depends on unremunerated labor, but w/o which the more formal cash economy would suffer & collapse.
the idea that the environment, if it ever did exist separate from people, is now a product of human industry or activity.
the environmental program established to address abandons hazardous waste sites in the US.
the transformation of an object or resource from something valued in & for itself, to something valued generically for exchange. In Marxist thought, the rise of the exchange value of a thing, over its use value.
an on-going process by which regional economies, societies, & cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of exchange.
an ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, & cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of exchange.
any of a number of theories critical of the role of patriarchal society for degrading both the natural environment & the social condition of women.
any category, condition, or thing that exists or is understood to have certain characteristics b/c people socially agree that it does.
emphasizing the significance of concepts, ideologies, & social practices to our understanding & making (constructing) of the world.
the natural world everything that exists that is not a product of human activity.
· Designates that it’s difficult if not impossible to divvy up the entire world into discrete natural & human components.
the ensemble of social relations in a particular time.
· Includes belief systems, economic relations of production, & institutions of governance.
a set of imaginary categories distinguishing types of people, typically based on skin color or body morphology, which varies significantly between cultures, locations, & periods of history.
a story w/a beginning and end.
· Environmental narratives such as “biological evolution” & “the tragedy of the commons” aid our comprehension & construction of the world.
a single idea, usually captured in a word or a phrase.
· Ex: carrying capacity
normative, value-laden, world views that spell out how the world is & how it ought to be.
modes & methods or representation.
· The techniques used to tell stories, introduce & define concepts, & communicate ideologies.
a theoretical formulation associated w/the philosopher Michel Foucault, which holds that what is known & held as true in a society is never separate from power, such that knowledge reinforces relations of power but also that systems of power are associated w/their own specific regimes of knowledge.
questioning the veracity of universal truth statements.
· Holds that all beliefs, truths, & facts are at root products of the particular set of social relations from which they arise.
the inevitable & ongoing process whereby humans & nonhumans produce and change one another through their interactions & interrelations.
the process through which plants use the sun’s energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds especially sugars that are used to build tissues.
the system through which carbon circulates through the earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, & biosphere, specifically including exchanges between carbon in the earth (as petroleum) & the atmosphere (as CO2) through combustion & back again through sequestration.
the capture & storage of carbon from the atmosphere into the biosphere or the geosphere through either biological means, as in plant photosynthesis, or engineered means.
the characteristic of the earth’s atmosphere, based on the presence of important gases including water vapor & carbon dioxide, to trap & retain heat, leading to temperatures that can sustain life.
cooperation & coordination between individuals to achieve common goals & outcomes.
a system for exchanging the right to emit/pollute limited amounts of determinant materials (like greenhouse gases).
· These rights or credits are exchangeable between emitters, but subject to a total regulatory limit.
a thesis based in neoclassical economics, holding that externalities (ex: pollution) can be most efficiently controlled through contracts & bargaining between parties, assuming the transaction costs of reaching a bargain are not excessive.
forms of regulation that depend on government laws & agencies to enforce rules, including such things as regulated limits on pollution of fuel efficiency standards.
the tendency in capitalism for profits, capital goods, savings, and value to flow towards, pool in, and/or accrue in specific places, leading to the centralization & concentration of both money & power.
the theoretical assemblage of plants arising from succession over time, determined by climatic & soil conditions.
an event or shock that disrupts an ecological system, thereafter leading either to recovery of that system (through succession) or movement of the system into a new state.
ecologically, the idealized tendency for disturbed forest areas to recover through stages of species invasion & growth, progressing from grassland, to shrubs, and eventually back to tree cover.
deposition of rain or snowfall w/unusually high acidity, resulting from the emission of sulfur dioxide & nitrogen oxides into the air, typically from industrial emissions. This form of precipitation is harmful for plant life & aquatic ecosystems.
benefits that an organic system creates through its function, including food resources, clean air or water, pollination, carbon dequestration, energy, & nutrient cycling, among many others.
the total variability & variety of life forms in a region, ecosystem, or around the world; typically sue as a measure of the health of an environmental system.
the total variability & variety of life forms in a region, ecosystem, or around the world.
· Typically used as a measure of the health of an environmental system.
a science of imagining, creating, & sustaining habitats, productive environment, & biodiversity in places used, traveled, & inhabited by human beings.
the regrowth of vegetation & return of a species to an area cleared or reduced by disturbance, as where a forest recovers its “climax vegetation” cover after a fire.
parallel levels of energy assimilation & transfer w/in ecological food webs.
· In terrestrial ecosystems, photosynthetic plants form the base trophic level, followed “up” the web by herbivores & successive levels of carnivores.
also known as top carnivores & are the animals in the ecosystem occupying the top trophic level.
· Don’t have any natural predators.
the location of an organism or species w/in a larger ecosystem, typically fulfilling an ecological function.
the conservation of land & resources so as to secure their availability to future generations.
the restoration of natural ecological functioning & evolutionary processes to ecosystems.
· Often requires the reintroduction or restoration of large predators to ecosystems.
a branch of scientific biology dedicated to exploring & maintaining biodiversity & plant and animal species.
the current era of anthropogenically induced plant & animal extinction, estimated to be between one thousand & ten thousand times the historical average, or background extinction rate.
individuals or groups w/a vested interest in the outcome of disputed actins.
both the academic discipline & professional field dedicated to the management of environmental conditions, goods, or services for social goals, which may range between instrumental human utility to ecological sustainability.
the largest seasonal or annual amount of any particular natural resource that can be harvested indefinitely.
the national environmental policy act of 1970 commits to the US govt. to protecting & improving the natural environment.
· After the NEPA, the federal govt. is required to write environmental impact statements (EIS) for govt. actions that have significant environmental impact.
the socially agreed upon characteristics of behavior associated w/men in any society.
· These may vary significantly between cultures, locations, & periods of history.
an effective fishing method for species that school near the surface. A large net is encircled around the targeted catch, after which the bottom of the net is drawn tight like the strings of a purse, thus confining the catch in the net.
an industrial fishing method deploying lines baited w/hundreds or thousands of hooks; longlines are usually several miles long & often result in significant bycatch.
non-targeted organisms incidentally caught by commercial fishing operations, including many fish species, but also a large number of birds, marine mammals, & sea turtles.
purchasing of products that are purportedly environmentally friendlier or less harmful than their alternatives; a model of enviornamtal protection that relies on consumer choices to change the behavior of firms or industries rather than regulation.
a method of protest that aims to pressure corporations into changing their practices by urging people to forgo purchasing products associated w/the targeted corporations.
imaginary, idealized social conditions arising from socio-political systems that facilitate cooperation over competition.
usually extending 200 nautical miles off the coasts of sovereign states, they are sea-zones w/in which states claim ownership over fishery & mineral resources.
relations of production dominant in many industrialized countries in the first several decades of the twentieth century; marked by large, vertically integrated corporations, high wage & rates of consumption, & considerable state power.
arising in the last decades of the twentieth century, the current relations of production in must industrialized countries; marked by decentralized, specialized, & often subcontracted production, the prominence of transnational corporations, & diminished state power.
corporations operating facilities in more than one country; also commonly called multinational corporations (MNCs).
an ethical position & social movement that states that non-human animals, particularly intelligent mammals, should be granted rights as ethical subjects on par or at least similar to human beings.
an ethical principle stating that humans should extend their sphere of moral concern beyond the human realm; most commonly, it’s argued that intelligent or sentinent animals are worthy ethical subjects.
the rigorous analysis of the environmental impacts of a product, service, or object from its point of manufacture all the way to its disposal as waste; also known as cradle-to-grave assessment.
a theoretical formula holding that human impact is a function of the total population, its overall affluence & its technology; this provides an alternative formulation to a simple assumption that population alone is proportional to impact.
a technology that removes salts & other minerals from water, especially sea water; prohibitively expensive in most contexts, current techniques are highly energy demanding.
the rigorous application of logic & information to determine the risk (possibility of an undesirable outcome) associated w/particular decisions; used to so reach more optimal & rational outcomes.
a field of study dedicated to understanding the optimal way to present & convey risk-related information to aid people in reaching optimal & rational outcomes.
a condition in the economy where the capacity in the economy where the capacity of industry to produce goods & services outpaces the needs & capacity to consume, causing economic slowdown & potential socioeconomic crisis.
a single crop cultivated to the exclusion of any other potential harvest.
the movement of species across the Atlantic Ocean, from the New World to the Old World & vice versa, & the resulting ecological transformations.
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