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Sinkholes are a concern primarily for residents whose dwellings are constructed atop ____________.
pores within rock and sediment
The majority of Earth’s liquid freshwater exists in ____________.
Unconsolidated sediment typically has greater porosity than the lithified rock that forms from it.
compaction of grains
cementation of grains
Both A and B are correct.
Primary porosity may be reduced by the ____________.
may increase or decrease porosity through dissolution or deposition
of greater hydraulic head to those of lesser hydraulic head
As a rule, groundwater always flows from areas ____________.
Material through which water readily flows is termed ____________.
may be permeable or impermeable
If a material is porous, it ____________.
must either have substantial porosity or be fractured
If a material is highly permeable, it ____________.
In unfractured rock and sediment, water molecules usually take a ____________.
A layer of rock or sediment with exceptionally low permeability is termed a(n) ____________ in hydrogeologic contexts.
Rock or sediment with water-filled pores, wherein upward percolation is blocked by an overlying, impermeable layer, is termed a(n) ____________.
Permeable rock or sediment between the water table and the land surface represents a(n) ____________.
A body of permeable rock or sediment that possesses a water table is termed a(n) ____________.
is a subdued (less steeply sloping) mimic of surface topography
In a humid climate, the topography of the water table ____________.
Unless it has recently rained, there is no water within pores in the unsaturated zone.
above the regional water table, within permeable rock or sediment
Perched water tables occur ____________.
They are the same as discharge areas.
Which statement about recharge areas is INCORRECT?
Freshwater lakes are always discharge areas.
on the slope of the water table and the permeability of the rock or sediment
The rate of groundwater flow through a body of rock or sediment depends ____________.
The relationship governing the rate of groundwater flow was discovered by ____________.
calcite (in limestone) is more soluble than quartz (in sandstone)
In groundwater, ____________.
calcium and magnesium
Hard water results from relatively high concentrations of dissolved ____________.
An ordinary (water-producing) well will result whenever the base of the well extends below the water table.
may rise during rainy periods and sink during droughts
The elevation of the water table ____________.
A dry well will result whenever the base of the well is above the water table.
lowers the local water table, forming a cone-shaped depression
Pumping vast quantities of water locally ____________.
carbonic acid; limestone
The majority of large cave and karst systems have resulted from ____________ etching into ____________.
Any place where groundwater naturally flows outward at the surface of Earth is termed a ____________.
contains more dissolved minerals than water flowing from cool springs
Water flowing from hot springs ____________.
A periodic explosive eruption of steam and water from within the ground up through
the surface is termed a ____________.
groundwater is used nonrenewably from aquifers composed of sediment
Land subsidence is likely whenever ____________.
If groundwater is clear, it can be assumed that it is drinkable.
just below the water table
Most dissolution of bedrock to form caves takes place ____________.
induces an upward flow of groundwater without any pumping
An artesian well is one that ____________.
Topography dominated by depressions formed by the collapse of caves is termed ____________.
Well-sorted sediments typically have ____________ porosity compared to poorly sorted sediments.
saline intrusion; with time the well will start to deliver saline water
Extensive pumping of fresh groundwater from a coastal aquifer can induce ____________.
Dissolution of grains in the burial environment produces ____________.
pumping oxygen and nutrients into a contaminant plume to help local bacteria metabolize the plume
Bioremediation of contaminated groundwater involves ____________.
arid, with less than 15% of the ground surface vegetated
To qualify as a desert, a region must be ____________.
low-latitude, low-elevation desert in Libya
The highest recorded temperature on Earth was in a ____________.
greater in deserts than in humid climates, where vegetation tends to hold soil together
During heavy rainstorms, rates of physical weathering and erosion are ____________.
cool off greatly at night, because of sparse vegetation and little cloud cover
Most hot deserts ____________.
in the subtropics, between 20° and 30° north or south of the equator
The most expansive hot deserts on Earth occur ____________.
cool, dry air sinks, becoming drier as it heats up
At 30° North latitude, at the northern edge of tropical (Hadley) cell convection in the northern hemisphere, ____________.
on the leeward (inward) side of coastal mountain ranges
Desert climate associated with a rain shadow is found ____________.
Deserts in coastal regions are most likely to be found where the currents are ____________.
within the rain shadow of one or more mountain ranges
Some of the physiographic features that cause extreme aridity may be found together within a single desert, but the deserts found in the western United States form primarily due to being located ____________.
in the subtropics
The Sahara of Africa is a desert primarily because it is located ____________.
next to a cold ocean current
The Atacama of Chile is a desert primarily because it is located ____________.
near the center of a large continent
The Gobi of Mongolia is a desert primarily because it is located ____________.
experienced other climates in the geologic past
Most regions that are now deserts have ____________.
As compared to humid climates, rates of chemical weathering in deserts are ____________.
in the interiors of the rocks, which are transported outward by the capillary action of water
The iron oxides and manganese oxides that produce desert varnish on the exterior surfaces of rocks are derived from ions ____________.
rocks that had been coated with desert varnish
Native Americans produced petroglyphs by etching into ____________.
In most deserts, the scarcity of rainfall means that most of the physical weathering and erosion is accomplished by the wind.
scouring erosion by water and sediment during flash floods
An arroyo is a steep-sided valley produced by ____________.
grains bouncing into the air, traveling for a short distance, and returning to the ground
Saltation of sand involves ____________.
A rock that has been abraded by windborne particles on multiple faces, forming a sharp edge in between, is termed a ____________.
A(n) ____________ is a wedge of sand and gravel deposited by the distributary channels that arise when an ephemeral stream reaches a plain at the base of a slope.
the strength of the wind
the consistency of wind direction
the abundance of sand
all of the above
The geometry of sand dunes is strongly influenced by ____________.
Playas are places where you would expect to find abundant ____________ exposed at the surface.
an elongate wedge of sediment at the base of a mountain range that forms from the merger of adjacent alluvial fans
A bajada is ____________.
iron and manganese-oxides
Desert varnish is a coating on aerially exposed desert rocks that is primarily composed of ____________.
reflects most of the light that falls on it
Ice is a substance with a high albedo, which means it ____________.
Because glacial advance is driven by gravity, it is impossible for glaciers to advance over perfectly flat terrain.
Cirques and horns are features associated with ____________.
Walking across an Antarctic ice sheet during winter would not be very treacherous, because icy surfaces are not slippery if the temperature is well below freezing.
the Martian caps consist of a combination of water ice and frozen carbon dioxide (dry ice)
the Martian caps have a spiral fracture pattern not found in Antarctica
Martian caps are ablated by sublimation only; there is currently no liquid water on Mars
Mars has polar ice caps that differ from the Earth’s Antarctic ice cap in that ____________.
glacial outwash streams
Stratified, sorted sand and gravel are deposited by ____________.
Glacial ice exhibits ____________ behavior near the top, but ____________ behavior beneath a depth of 60 m.
A glacier will always advance from its source area if the rate of accumulation is greater than the rate of ____________.
The first scientist to theorize the past presence of glaciers in Europe was ____________.
At the present, glaciers cover about ____________ of the surface of the continents.
The current interglacial interval began a little more than ____________ years ago.
Today, continental glaciers are limited to Antarctica and ____________.
An intermediate product in the transformation of snow to glacial ice is ___________.
Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Long Island, New York, are both examples of Pleistocene glacial ____________ that have been further built up by wave-deposited sands.
A bowl-shaped depression formed by a mountain glacier is termed a(n)____________.
A lake that forms within a bowl-shaped depression formed by a mountain glacier is termed a(n)____________.
A remnant ridge separating two bowl-shaped depressions formed by a mountain glacier is termed a(n)____________.
An angular peak surrounded by three or more bowl-shaped depressions formed by a mountain glacier is termed a(n)____________.
Valleys carved by glaciers tend to be shaped like the letter ____________, whereas valleys carved by water tend to shaped like the letter ____________.
smaller glacially carved valley intersects a larger glacially carved valley
A hanging valley is formed when a ____________.
When sea level rises, causing the ocean to fill a glacially carved valley, a ____________ results.
an absence of sorting
Sediments deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are characterized by ____________.
Sediments deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are termed ____________.
Given the modern continental configuration, it is much easier for large continental ice sheets to become established in the ____________ hemisphere than in the ____________ hemisphere.
Wind blows finer particles long distances from glacial environments, where they settle out to form ____________.
An important long-term factor determining whether glacial ice will form on the continents has likely been the proportion of which gas in the atmosphere?
That periodic changes in Earth’s orbital eccentricity and magnitude, as well as in the direction (precession) of Earth’s axial tilt, affect the advance and retreat of ice sheets was first proposed by ____________.
wetter; pluvial lakes
Areas on the southern margins of the continental glaciers of the northern hemisphere were much ____________ during Plio-Pleistocene glaciations than they are today, as suggested by evidence of large ____________ during this time.
two lateral moraines and one medial moraine
Two mountain glaciers merge their flows in a glacial valley. Prior to their merger, each possessed two lateral moraines and no medial moraines. As a result of a merger, the new larger glacier in the valley will possess ____________.
Advance and retreat of massive glacial ice sheets during glacial episodes is a simple function of incident sunlight. Glacial behavior can be modeled precisely by considering only Milankovitch orbital variation and variable solar output.
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