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§ is an extinct tetrapod genus, among the firstvertebrate animals to have recognizable limbs
§ an order of extinct armored jawed fishes of the class Placodermi that flourished in the Devonian period before their sudden extinction, surviving forabout 50 million years and penetrating most marine ecological niches.
§ a carnivorous mammal-like reptile of the late Permianand Triassic periods, whose specialized teeth were well developed
§ Of or relating to an organism that generates heat tomaintain its body temperature, typically above the temperature of itssurroundings; warm-blooded.
§ large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily ableto maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature than smaller animalsby virtue of their greater volume-to-surface area ratio. A bigger animal has proportionately less of its body close to the outsideenvironment than a smaller animal of otherwise similar shape, and so it gainsheat from, or loses heat to, the environment much more slowly
§ very early reptile. It lived 312 million years ago during the Late Carboniferous period
§ 20 centimetres (8 in) long (including the tail)and probably would have looked rather similar to modern lizards. It had small sharpteeth and likely ate small invertebrates such as millipedes or early insects.
o Lobefin fishes
§ a group of bonyfishes with paired rounded fins, suggesting limbs, that are extinct except forthe coelacanths. The lobe-finned fishes are regarded by some as ancestors ofamphibians and other terrestrial vertebrates.
§ Large primitive reptile having a tall spinal sail.
§ An extinct amphibian of a large group (orderTemnospondyli) that was dominant from the Carboniferous to the Triassic.
§ A group of primitive jawless vertebrates (superclassAgnatha) that includes the lampreys, hagfishes, and many fossil fishlike forms.
o C. megalodon
§ largest and most powerful predators in vertebrate history, and likely had a profoundimpact on the structure of marine communities.
§ enterocoelomates because their coelom develops through enterocoely.
§ a genus of extinct,semi-aquatic temnospondyl amphibian found primarily in the Lower Permian
o H.M.S. Beagle
§ The boat that Charles Darwin travelled on to theGalapagos Islands
§ early tetrapod genus that lived at the end of theUpper Devonian epoch
o Lung fishes
§ freshwater fish belonging to the subclass
§ best known for retaining characteristics primitivewithin the Osteichthyes, including theability to breathe air, and structures primitive within Sarcopterygii, including the presence of lobed fins witha well-developed internal skeleton.
§ extinct animal known from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia
§ our ancestors
§ A four-footed animal (superclass Tetrapoda), esp. amember of a group that includes all vertebrates higher than fishes.
o Amniote egg
§ An egg with compartmentalized sacs (a liquid-filledsac in which the embryo develops, a foodsac, and a waste sac) that allowed vertebrates to reproduce onland.
o C. Lyell
§ a British lawyer and the foremost geologist of his day. He is best known as the authorof Principles of Geology,
§ reptile having a pair of openings in the skull behindeach eye
§ A genus of prehistoric sarcopterygian (often called lobe-finned fishes) which has attained an iconic status fromits close relationships to tetrapods.
§ extinct genus of animal found as fossils in the MiddleCambrian-aged Burgess Shale formation of British Columbia
§ amphibian of the superorder Labyrinthodontia.
§ The retention of juvenile features in the adultanimal.
§ fish-like vertebrate with bony plates on head andupper body; dominant in seas and rivers during the Devonian; considered theearliest vertebrate with jaws
§ a monospecific genus of extinct sarcopterygian (lobe-finned fish) from the late Devonian period, with many features akin to those of tetrapods
§ A lancelet (genus Branchiostoma, familyBranchiostomidae) that is caught for food in parts of Asia.
§ lobe-finned fishes known chiefly from Paleozoic andMesozoic fossils
§ carnivorous dinosaur of the Permian in North Americahaving a crest or dorsal sail.
§ (of a reaction or process) Accompanied by the releaseof heat.
§ genus of shark-like cartilaginous fish that first arose in theoceans of the late Carboniferous 310 million years ago, survived the Permian-Triassic Extinction Event, and eventually went extinct during the early Triassic, 225 million years ago.
o Tommotian fauna
§ Early Cambrian
§ an extinct stem-arthropod genus found in Cambrian fossil deposits. Theonly known species, O. regalis, is known from the Middle CambrianBurgess Shale Lagerstätte of British Columbia, Canada
o Rayfin fishes
§ Any of various bony fishes belonging to the classActinopterygii, having fins supported by long rays of bone.
o Lateral line
§ a visibleline along the side of a fish consisting of a series of sense organs
§ is an extinct genus of anomalocaridid, which are, in turn, thought to be closelyrelated to the arthropods
§ an extinct grouping of primitive land plants.
§ The fundamental and distinctive characteristics ofsomeone or something, esp. when regarded as unchangeable
§ Teacher atCambridge
§ Rev. ofthe Anglican
§ Traveledon a round the world voyage
§ Noted scholar of Natural Theology
§ Needed adinning Companion
captain of the beagle
found both in Darwin
o Little shelly Fauna
§ are mineralized fossils, many only a few millimeters long, with a nearlycontinuous record from the latest stages of the Ediacaran to the end of the Early Cambrian period. They are very diverse
§ extinct fish-like jawless vertebrate having a heavilyarmored body; of the Paleozoic.
§ a reptile-like labyrinthodont from the early Permian of North America and Europe (approximately 280 to 270 million years ago). It wassmall, only 2 ft (60 cm) long. Seymouria was well adapted tolife on land, with many reptilian features
§ The theory that changes in the earth's crust duringgeological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniformprocesses.
o Are all species related?
§ Yes – all come from one common ancestor
o Is evolution and the “survival of the fittest”the same thing?
§ Survival of the Fittest – ability of organismsof one generation to obtain representation in the next generation
§ Evolution – the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations
o Evolution of the eye
§ Eyes corresponding to every stage of eyeevolution àat each stage the eyes are helpful
§ Patch of Pigmented Cell
§ Cup Eye
§ Pinhole Camera
§ Eye w/ Primitive Lens
§ Complex Camera-type Eye
o Do all species evolve at the same rate?
§ Species are not fixed
§ Specieschange with time
§ New Species are evolve from existing species
o Pandas thumb
§ Evolved to be able to hold food
o Explain nature is an “excellent tinkerer, not adivine artificer”
§ Descent with modification = all life come from amodel that is just slightly changed
o How are fossils used to support Darwin’s theoryof evolutionary?
§ Connecting the past to the present; Extinctions; Rate ofchange (Variable)
o How do migratory birds differ from non migratorybirds on the Galapagos Islands?
§ Migratory birds = not isolated from otherpopulations àinterbreeding with other populations
§ Non migratory birds = isolated àonly found on the Galapagos Islands
o Is evolution and natural selection a randomprocess?
§ Evolution & natural selection = not divinelyplanned but not really random à happen for survival and to continue to reproduce
· Prey and Predator Arms Race
o The forelimbs of horses, dogs, and birds servedifferent functions, but have similar construction. How is this evidence for evolution?
§ Descent with Modification àadapted and changed to be able to make the next generation but all started fromthe same ancestor
§ Environment “selects’ a character - Individuals withthe favorable variations
§ Establishes that natural populations have charactervariations - In time - A population changes – Descent with Modification
o What are fossils?
§ tangible remains or signs of ancient organisms - most arefound in sedimentary rocks
o What are some of the limiting factors thatcontrols the distribution and abundance of any species?
§ Isolation in location
§ Resources are limited à struggle for existence
o What are the basic assumptions of naturaltheology?
§ 1) Examines nature to see God's work.
§ 2) Species were created perfect and unchanging.
§ 3) Species perfectly fit into their environment.
§ 4) Thereis little or no variation within a species
§ 5) All extinctions were caused by Noah's Flood
o What biological and geological observationsabout the Galapagos islands made Darwin conclude that “hence both in space andtime, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that great fact – that mysteries –the first appearance of new beings on this earth”?
§ The Galapagos Islands are younger than the continent
§ Most plants and animals are found nowhere else;
§ Most unexpected - difference varieties found on eachislands;
§ All the Galápagos Island species that are foundnowhere else are related to animals living on the American Continent
§ Species changed after they arrived - New Species areevolving
o What does the diversity of dog breeds tell usabout the power of Darwinian selection?
§ Artificial Section =
· Variation of Characters (Inherited)
· Selection(Humans choose what variety breeds)
· Change (Divergence of Character from the Parent)
§ Artificial selection = like Natural Selection ànature makes the selections, nature makes variations
o Whatdoes the fossil record tell us about the rates and patterns of evolution?
o What evidence supports evolutionary theory andthe concept of Descent with Modification?
§ There is variation among populations; some ofthis variation is heritable; individuals with the favorable variations surviveand reproduce
· Dolphins, dogs, and humans all share similarstructures but for different functions and adapted differently
· All body plans were made during the Cambrian àjust been developing and adapting them
o What factors cause the struggle for existence innatural systems? Why is this important to understanding the process of Naturalselection?
§ More organisms are born then can survive on theamount of resources they have à survivors reproduce & have representation in thenext generation
o What geographic patterns suggested to CharlesDarwin that certain kinds of species descend from others?
§ All the Galápagos Island species that are foundnowhere else were originally from S. America
§ Comparing numerous specimens the most remarkablefeature is that the different islands are inhabited by a different set ofbeings.
o Whatuseful information can we extract from the fossil record?
o What is natural selection and Descent with Modification?
§ Naturalselection = There is a Struggle for existence; Physical traits ofvary within a population; Some variants are better adapted than others; Better-adaptedindividuals survive and reproduce; Over time, natural selection producesgradual changes in existing species
§ Newspecies evolve from pre-existing ones
§ Descentwith Modification = Divergence from a common ancestor
o What isnatural selection? How does it differ from artificial selection?
§ Naturalselection = nature makes the selections of variations and characteristics,artificial selection = breeders make the selection of variations and characteristics
o What is the importance of the diversity offinches of the Galapagos Islands?
§ The diversity of finches came from naturalselection (individuals within species are variable, variations are passed on tooffspring, more offspring are born than can survive to reproduce, strugglethrough drought and food quality)
· Adaption of beak size allows survival àreproduction àoffspring can the adaption of beak
o What is the relationship between the origin ofnew species (speciation) and extinction?
§ as a species adapts the new species develops ànew species are the survivor of the older species that become extinction
o Why are morphological similarities (homologies)used to classify species?
§ Similar structure reveals ancestral connections
· Limbs and adaptive breakthroughs
o Why are there no frogs on the Galapagos? What isthe importance of that observation?
§ Frogs would not be able to travel over the saltwater ocean to get to the Galapagos from South America
o Explain how a symbiotic relationship amongProterozoic prokaryotes may have given rise to eukaryotes
§ A Proterozoic prokaryotes absorbed bacteria andbecome more complex à eventually developed into a eukaryote cell (needs Oxygen Protection from UV radiation – Ozone)
§ SYMBIOSIS = relationship for mutual Benefit
o Whatevidence indicates that eukaryotic cells evolved over 2 billion years ago?
o What is the red Queen hypothesis and how doesthis hypothesis help to explain the importance of sexual reproduction?
§ Variation; Natural Selection from; New Parasites andPredators; Rapid Adaption to a Changing Environment.
o What is snowball earth?
§ Reduce CO2 fluxes into the atmosphere; worldices over completely; weathering shuts down; Oceans become anoxic
o Describe the first metazoan
§ Sponge = 760 million years old, small (size ofgrain of sand), microscopic
o How did the retreat of glaciers during thesnowball earth influence the development of metazoans?
§ Releases nutrients into the ocean; sharpincrease in phosphorus; oxygen and nutrients stimulated the evolution ofmetazoans
o What are metazoans and what characteristics doall metazoans have in common?
§ Animals – eukaryote cell, Hox genes
o What is the relationship between sexualreproduction and evolution?
§ The DNA of two individuals are shuffled and re-dealtto their offspring. à Offspringare therefore similar but not identical to their parents. à Leads toIncreased Genetic Variation à Increased Adaptability!
§ A New Being Not a copy
§ Sexual reproduction allows the reshuffling of thegenetic deck with each generation à New beings each generation = sex reproduction required for the evolutionof complex life
o Why does sexual reproduction lead to the geneticdeath of the parents?
§ Parents have made the new version of themselves
o What are Hox genes and why these gene soimportant in the evolution of metazoans?
§ Master (regulatory) genes – Control Structualgenes
· Found within all Metazoans
· Determine form, number, and structure
· Different parts of the embryo can grow atdifferent rates
o What types of symmetry are found withinmetazoans?
§ Asymmetrical & Radial symmetry &bilateral symmetry
o Discuss the benefits of skeletonization
§ Storage of mineral nutrients, protection frompredators, movement, support increase in size – adaptive breakthrough
o Discuss the possible causes for the increase ofdiversity of life during the Cambrian
§ Increased Geologic Activity
§ Oxygen level increases
§ Increased food supply
o How did an increase in geological activity atthe start of the Cambrian contribute to an increase in species diversity?
§ Increased Geologic Activity
· More volcanic eruptions (increased CO2, warmertemperature); sea level rises (more shallow water environments; increases inthe rate of sea floor spreading
o What are trilobites?
§ An extinct marine arthropod (subphylum Trilobita) thatoccurred abundantly during the Paleozoic era
o What is the burgess shale fauna?
§ Rare Cambrain fossils – 100,000 fossils (morethan 130 animal species & complex community)
o What is the evidence that Glaciers werewidespread during Late Proterozoic snowball earth?
§ Striations and the explosion of life
o What is the importance of the appearance ofburrows? Describe these burrows?
§ Evolution of mineralized skeletons àpredation àvertical burrowing eat the organic material
o Whatis the importance of the Tommotian faunas?
o What is the Mistaken Point fauna? What is theimportance of this fauna?
§ 560-575 million years ago, Newfoundland
§ marine environment, water depth = 2,000 meters
§ multiple fossils, holdfasts, and branchingstructures
· plants, animals, stromatolites, trace fossils
· Coelom = hollow body cavity where internalorgans can develop & hydrostatic skeleton
o What is the snowball earth hypothesis?
§ Reduce CO2 fluxes into the atmosphere; worldices over completely; weathering shuts down; oceans become anoxic
o Whatphylum is best represented in the Burgess Shale Fauna?
o What predators were in the Burgess Shale Fauna?Why are predators an important factor for increasing species diversity? (redQueen Hypothesis)
§ Evidence of predators – bite scars, eyes
§ Prey adapts to survive and reproduce – predatorsadapt to eat the prey – then prey adapt = arms race
o What was Pikaia and what is its importancetoday?
§ A primitive chordate à our ancestor
o What was the importance of the Ediacaran fauna?
§ Evidence of metazoan animals related to modernforms, or unusual forms that did not survive
§ Integrated ecosystem; dominated by filterfeeding organism; low oxygen levels; high surface to body ratio; relativelyflat and thin; no vertical bioturbation; no predation
o Why does the fossil record become richer duringthe Cambrian?
§ There is more diversity and complexity;
o Describe the first land community, when did itappear?
o Describe the general Carboniferous forestecology
o Describe the skull of Carboniferous ageAmphibians
o Did lumbs and air breathing occur before orafter tetrapods emerged to live on land?
o Discuss the change needed to the skeleton ofAcanthostega to enable an animal to move on land
o Discuss the transition from Lobefin Fishes toAmphibians, place the following in correct order of appearance (Acanthostega,Eusthenopteron, panderichthys, I chthyostega, and Tiktaalik), and for each,discuss the characteristics that were important during this transition
o How did coal form? Describe the environment towhere coal forests grew. When and where did it form?
o How doesthe transition from Lobefin Fishes to Amphibians supports the Darwin’s theoryof descent with modification?
o List and describe the problems that organismshad to overcome before they could inhabit the land? Why would vertebrateanimals move to the land?
o Were the first tetrapod’s good swimmers or goodwalkers?
o What are some of the characteristics that youshare with Tiktaalik?
o What characteristics link lobefin fishes and theearliest amphibians? Which lobefin fish gave rise to Amphibians?
o What climatic/atmospheric conditions enableinsects of the Carboniferous Period to grow so large?
o What fish has a wrist?
o What is the importance of Tiktaalik andPanderichthys?
o What were the first vertebrates to live theirwhole lives on land?
o When is a fish not a fish but an amphibian?
o Why did fishes start breathing air?
o Why did the first amphibians make excursions outof the water and onto land?
o What characteristics are common to allchordates?
o What characteristics do you share with lobe finfishes?
o What characteristics do you share withTheriodonts?
o What characteristics link echinoderms tochordates?
o What are some of the characteristics that youshare with Tiktaalik?
o What is the fate of the gill arches?
o How could such a complex structure like an eyeevolve?
o In lobefin fishes, when do nostrils appear?
o How does your brain compare with that of ashark?
o What do teeth, breasts, feathers, and hair havein common?
o Lateral lines in fishes are similar to whatfeature in human?
o Trace history of your three inner bones
o Why were the reptiles so much more successful atliving on land than the amphibians?
o Why are Extinctions important?
o What are the benefits of an amniotic eggcompared to an anmphibian egg?
o The earliest occurrence of reptiles in thefossil record occurs during what time? What amphibians, reptiles, trilobites,worm, and Therapsid?
o Trace the changes in the vertebrate limb fromlobefin fishes to reptile
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