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The Paleozoic ocean that separated North America and what is now northern Europe when the supercontinent Rodinia formed rifts that split the land mass was known as
a. Iapetus. c. Proto-Pangea.
b. Mirovia. d. Laurasia.
a. Sauk, Tippecanoe, Kaskaskia, Absaroka.
b. Absaroka, Kaskaskia, Tippecanoe, Sauk.
c. Tippecanoe, Kaskaskia, Sauk, Absaroka
d. Sauk, Absaroka, Kaskaskia, Tippecanoe.
A large-scale, lithostratigraphic unit that represents a major transgressive-regressive cycle and is bounded by a regional unconformity is called a
c. Cratonic sequence
During Cambrian, the North American continent was
a. domed upward and experienced extensive erosion.
b. submerged beneath an epeiric sea except for the Transcontinental Arch region.
c. rifted apart along the present day Mississippi River region.
d. combined into a great supercontinent called Pangea.
a. black shales, limestones, and sandstones.
b. sandstones, conglomerates, and limestones
c. conglomerates, limestones, and dolomites.
. d. limestones, dolomites, and evaporates.
The first occurrence of shell-bearing multi-cellular animals was in what system?
During Early Paleozoic the North American craton was bounded on four sides by orogenic belts. They were
a. Ouachita, Cordilleran, Franklinian, and Caledonian.
b. Franklinian, Caledonian, Appalachian, and Cordilleran.
c. Caledonian, Michigonian, Appalachian, and Cordilleran.
d. Willistonian, Franklinian, Michigonian, and Caledonian.
The boundary of the base of Cambrian rocks is marked by the lowest (oldest) occurrence of feeding burrows of this trace fossil.
a. Arthropod (trilobite)
A basin where evaporation produced heavy brines that sank to the bottom and were prevented from escaping because of the sill or bar is called
a. the Cordilleran Region.
b. Barred Basin.
c. Sauk Deposition.
d. Appalachian Basin.
An extensive accumulation of mostly clastic sediments that are deposited in an area adjacent to an uplifted region is called a(n)
a. depositional basin.
b. clastic wedge.
c. structural dome.
d. alluvial fan.
During what geologic system were extensive evaporite minerals deposited in the Michigan Basin?
The cratonic sequence of which the St. Peter Sandstone is a part
The principle that postulates that sediments deposited during transgression (or regression) do not necessarily correlate in geologic age throughout their areal extent is called
b. the principle of lateral continuity.
c. the principle of original horizontality.
d. the principle of temporal transgression.
In the Cordilleran region, the earliest deposits were sands, which graded westward into finer clastics and carbonates. An excellent place to study this Sauk transgression is along the walls of the
a. Niagara Escarpment.
b. Grand Canyon of the Colorado River.
c. St. Peter Sandstone.
d. Niagara Falls.
Paleozoic rocks of the Ouachita Belt are noted for their
a. shelly facies.
b. abundant supply.
c. large mineral content.
d. unusually siliceous and cherty derived from submarine weathering of ash.
Ash beds, associated with the great volcanism that occurred during the rising of the Taconic ranges have been weathered to a clay called
a. bentonite. .
b. siliceous shales.
The most often associated fossil that contain stipes (branches) that is common in Ordovician dark shales in Europe and North America are called
The break up of Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodina produced Laurnetia which was composed of North America and parts of all of the following except
c. North Western Ireland.
The six major continents derived from the breakup of Rodinia were
a. Laurentia, Baltica Kayalchstania, Siberia, China, and Gondwana.
b. Laurasia, Baltica, Kayalchstania, Siberia, China, and Gondwana.
c. Laurentia, Baltica, Kayalchstania, Siberia, China, and Gowganda.
d. Laurasia, Baltica, Kayalchstania, Siberia, China, and Gowganda.
The eon we call Phanerozoic includes these three eras.
a. Proterozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic. .
b. Proterozoic, Jurassic, Cenozoic.
c. Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic.
d. Paleozoic, Jurassic, Cenozoic.
Queenston clastic wedge
A basin which had its opening to the sea restricted by a raised sill (or possibly by a submerged bar) is called a .
The name of the orogeny where initial activity began during Early Ordovician and continued with intense deformation through Middle and Late Ordovician is
The St. Peter Sandstone, which is pure quartz and used in the manufacture of glass, was deposited during which sequence of deposition?
The Taconic and Acadian orogenies were the result of plate convergence associated with the narrowing of the Ocean.
The closure of the Iapetus and crumpling of the Caledonian marine basin began in what time period?
The Caledonian Orogeny reached in climax during what two periods?
The mobile belt that contains rocks that are well exposed not only in the British Isles but also across northeastern Greenland and Spitzbergen is called the
The relatively stable part of a continent that consists of a Precambrian shield and the buried extension of the shield known as the platform is called the
One of the largest of the highland regions during Cambrian (Sauk sequence) that was a vast upland area composed of previously formed Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks was called
The effects of the Taconic orogeny are represented by remnants of an activity in the Taconic mountains of New York in ash beds now weathered to clay is called .
The principle of temporal transgression stipulates that sediments deposited by advancing or regressive seas are of correlative geologic age throughout their aerial extent.
The St. Peter Sandstone is characterized as a “mature” sandstone because of good sorting and an abundance of well-rounded grains of stable minerals.
The Iapetus ocean formed during Early Paleozoic as a response to the rifting of Pangea.
The Queenston Clastic Wedge was formed as a result of the Taconic orogeny.
In North America the mountain-building events during Early Paleozoic are called the Taconic, Acadian, and Allegheny orogenies.
During Early Paleozoic, there were four large continents.
A sequence of Upper Precambrian to Ordovician sediments bounded both above and below by a regional unconformity and recording an episode of marine transgression, followed by full flooding of a large part of the craton, and ending with a regression from the craton.
A clastic wedge of red beds shed westward from highlands elevated in the course of the Taconic Orogeny.
Ouachita orogenic belt
The belt of rocks formed by mountain building tectonics of the Ouachita Orogeny in North America.
A sequence of Devonian-Mississippian sediments, bounded above and below by regional unconformities and recording an episode of transgression followed by full flooding of a large part of the craton and by subsequent regression.
Extinct colonial marine invertebrates considered to be protochordates. Graptolites range from the Late Cambrian to the Mississippian.
The region of North America that consists of the entire system of more-or-less parallel mountain ranges that extend westward from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast. It includes the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, and Coast Ranges.
Bentonite is composed of clay minerals that are formed by the alteration of volcanic ash. Cretaceous rocks of Wyoming and Colorado include extensive beds of this soft, plastic, light-colored clayey rock.
A basin which had its opening to the sea restricted by a raided sill (or possibly also by a submerged bar).
Late Paleozoic episodes of mountain building along the present trend of the Appalachian Mountains. Likely caused by the collision, occurring during Late Carboniferous, of northwest Africa and the southern part of the Appalachian belt. The third of the orogenies that built the Appalachian Mountains of North America.
The belt of rocks formed by mountain building tectonics of the Allegheny Orogeny in North America.
An episode of mountain building in the northern Appalachians during the Devonian Period.
A sequence of Permian-Pennsylvanian sediments bounded both above and below by a regional unconformity and providing a record an episode of marine transgression over an eroded surface, full flood level of inundation, and regression from the craton.
During Early Paleozoic, Laurentia was located where on the globe?
Today, the base of the Cambrian System is placed at what sort of feature?
During Late Cambrian, the ocean that lay roughly in the position of the Atlantic Ocean was called:
During Early Paleozoic, the continent that we know today as North America was somewhat different and in historical geology we call it:
. The Paleozoic sedimentary record across the North American craton has been divided into unconformity-bounded cratonic sequences with names such as Sauk, Tippecanoe, Kaskaskia, and Absaroka. Each sequence documents what sequence of events?
In Cambrian rocks, the abundance of clean quartz sands and carbonate rocks with stromatolites, mudcracks, and marine fossils indicates that:
What is the name of the strange, lobster-like arthropod is found in Lower Silurian deposits that may be brackish to freshwater (or abnormally saline) in origin because they are not found in association with normal marine fossils.
Near the end of the Tippecanoe sequence (Silurian), landlocked reef-fringed basins developed in the Great Lakes area and at the same time this sediment was deposited within the Michigan Basin:
When the Tippecanoe Sea flooded North America, it deposited this unusually pure unit of well sorted, well rounded grains, which is used in glass manufacturing:
Following the Taconic orogeny in the eastern U.S., what sediment was deposited?
Economically important Silurian deposits of what material accumulated in the southern Appalachians, particularly around Birmingham, Alabama?
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