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A volcano can spew several kinds of gases into the air, but most of the gas is:
water vapor and carbon dioxide.
The term viscosity refers to:
a liquid's resistance to flow.
Which magma type produces the most lava flows?
Compared to rhyolitic lavas, basaltic lavas tend to be:
higher in viscosity and retain dissolved gases.
Which of the following is a likely product of a subaqueous basaltic eruption?
Felsic magmas with high water and gas content commonly form:
All of the following are likely environmental effects of a volcanic explosion EXCEPT:
an increased growing season.
Whether they are basaltic or rhyolitic, almost all volcanoes have both:
The greatest danger to Hawai'i from the undersea volcano Loihi is:
An effusive eruption from a fissure would most likely result in:
a flood basalt.
A volcanic dome forms when:
rising magma cools and hardens within a volcano's crater.
A pyroclastic volcanic eruption in which there is no volcanic cone but tephra is expelled from a series of ring-like fractures is called a(n):
What is the most common way of predicting volcanic eruptions?
What is the primary difference between weathering and erosion?
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks; erosion is the transporting of rock fragments.
Mechanical weathering can:
change the size and shape of rock structures.
Rocks that are carried along at the base of a glacier scrape against underlying rocks. This form of mechanical weathering is called:
The dissolution of limestone to form caves results from water combining with:
carbon dioxide to form carbonic acid.
In geology, the term "oxidation" often refers to:
the chemical combination of a mineral's ions with oxygen.
Which of the following chemical effects is not a consequence of acid rain?
Precipitation of calcium carbonate.
Vegetation promotes chemical weathering by:
producing organic acids upon decay.
A mineral's stability, or resistance to chemical change, is primarily a result of:
the strength of a mineral's chemical bonds.
A metal ore is:
any naturally occurring concentration of valuable metals that can be
Carbon dioxide is added to the atmosphere by all of the following processes EXCEPT:
chemical weathering of silicate minerals.
All of the following practices help to conserve soil EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements about weathering in extraterrestrial environments is NOT true?
Most of the weathering on Venus is chemical rather than mechanical.
Sedimentary rocks are important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
they contain most of our precious gems, such as diamonds and emeralds.
Most sediments are:
detrital, composed of solid fragments of other rocks that have undergone mechanical weathering.
Which of the following transport media generally results in the most well-sorted sediments?
The degree to which sediment particles are rounded depends on all of the following EXCEPT:
the amount of time that has elapsed since the particle was attached to the
Sedimentary layers, or beds, indicate all of the following EXCEPT:
disturbance of sediments by organisms.
Processes that affect sedimentary rocks after burial, but before or during lithification, are:
A thinly layered rock composed of clay-sized particles is a:
A sandstone composed predominantly of quartz is a(n):
A sandstone containing quartz and feldspar grains in a fine-grained clay matrix is probably a(n):
All of the following statements concerning conglomerates and breccias are true EXCEPT:
they are chemical sedimentary rocks.
The amount of calcium carbonate dissolved in water is directly proportional to:
the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in the water.
Which of the following statements about various kinds of limestone is NOT true?
Gypsum is a lithified biogenic ooze formed when saltwater evaporates.
Question Continental sedimentary environments are characterized by:
The term "sedimentary facies" refers to:
characteristics that distinguish one sedimentary rock unit from another.
Ancient volcanic eruptions in the Caribbean region are recorded in cores of deep-sea muds as:
Rocks and minerals are most stable when they:
are in the environment in which they formed.
What is the main effect of lithostatic pressure?
No change in shape just compression.
The term "foliation" in metamorphic rocks refers to:
a consistent orientation of the mineral grains perpendicular to the direction
of greatest pressure.
Water often facilitates the metamorphism of which kind of rock?
Metamorphism that results entirely from the heat of magma is:
All of the following statements concerning contact metamorphism are true EXCEPT:
it only occurs at great depths.
Gneiss can be distinguished from other metamorphic rocks by:
its dark and light mineral bands.
The rock that results from the metamorphism of relatively pure limestone is:
The term "metamorphic grade" refers to:
the severity of metamorphic conditions on the parent rock.
The technique of thermobarometry is used to determine what?
Past temperatures and pressures.
Serpentinite is formed by:
hydrothermal metamorphism of mantle rock
Landslides commonly occur in metamorphic terrains if:
the planes of foliation (cleavage planes) are parallel to the slopes.
All of the following are tectonic events that occur very slowly EXCEPT:
The earliest known life forms on Earth are believed to have lived:
3.77 billion years ago.
Determining a specific age for a geologic event, feature, or rock unit using quantitative data is called:
The primary reason the principle of original horizontality can be applied by geologists is:
sediments tend to be deposited in horizontal layers.
According to the principle of cross-cutting relationships, if a dike is found cutting across sedimentary strata, the reasonable conclusion would be that:
the dike is younger than the sedimentary strata.
According to the principle of inclusions, if a rock is found embedded within an igneous pluton, the reasonable conclusion would be that:
the rock is older than the pluton.
According to the principle of faunal succession, one would expect:
very old rocks to contain fossils of only simple organisms, while younger rocks would contain fossils of both simple and complex organisms.
All of the following represent examples of unconformities EXCEPT:
tilted sedimentary strata offset by a fault.
Evidence of the Earth's early atmosphere was contained in the:
paleosols preserved on the unconformity surface.
The half-life of a radioactive isotope refers to:
the time it takes for half of the parent isotopes to decay to daughter isotopes.
If a mineral sample is dated using the potassium-argon dating method, and if some of the argon-40 gas has escaped, the mineral's age:
will appear to be younger than it really is.
Which of the following statements about carbon-14 dating is NOT true?
The bodies of organisms take in carbon-14 throughout their lives and after death until they are isolated from the atmosphere by burial.
Which of the following statements about varve chronology is NOT true?
Summer sediment layers are dark-colored, while winter sediments are light-colored.
A rock or mineral becomes a closed system when it completely cools and crystallizes. Which rock type would become a closed system most rapidly?
The most dramatic mass extinction event on Earth occurred:
250 million years ago (Permo-Triassic).
The oldest remains of life have been found in:
670-million-year-old sandstone of Australia.
The general term for the change in shape of a rock whensufficient stress is applied is:
A rock that undergoes sufficient stress to change its original shape has exceeded its:
Rocks subjected to low amounts of stress over a long period of time will most likely:
exhibit plastic deformation.
The strike and dip of a rock refer to:
the orientation of a rock unit in relation to neighboring rock units.
All of the following statements about the history of folded rock are true EXCEPT:
folds are typically associated with tension at divergent boundaries.
Resistant sandstone in the trough of a syncline would eventually form which topographic feature?
Question A fold in which the axis intersects the Earth's surface is known as a(n):
All of the following are evidence of brittle failure EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements concerning horsts and grabens is true?
Grabens are fault blocks that dropped vertically relative to horsts.
A thrust fault is the result of:
compressional stress, and the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall.
Historically, the search for petroleum deposits focused on locating and drilling:
the crests of anticlinal structures.
If an earthquake occurs, the first waves to arrive at a seismograph are the:
The type of earthquake waves that have been known to produce symptoms of seasickness are:
rolling surface waves.
All of the following are differences between the Richter scale and the Mercalli intensity scale EXCEPT:
the Richter magnitude decreases as distance from the epicenter increases, while the Mercalli measurement remains the same regardless of distance.
Which of the following terms is NOT described correctly?
A seismometer is the scale used for measuring seismic waves.
A seismograph works:
with the aid of electrodes inserted in the Earth to detect fluctuations in electrical conductivity caused by vibrations.
In the formula for determining the seismic moment of an earthquake, the quantity measured for "strength of rock" is:
the elastic modulus.
The magnitude of most of the Earth's earthquakes is from ________ on the Richter scale.
1.0 to 2.0
To locate the epicenter of an earthquake, a seismologist must determine all of the following EXCEPT:
the depth of the earthquake and the type of fault from which it originated.
Because rocks buried deep in the Earth cannot store strain energy very well, many earthquakes occur in rocks more than 435 miles below the Earth's surface.
Which of the following statements concerning liquefaction is NOT true?
Water pressure between sediment grains removes frictional contact between them.
All of the following represent clues to the cause of a 2-meter high tsunami that struck Japan in 1700 EXCEPT:
tree ring records from roots indicate temporary submergence of trees
between 1699 and 1700.
Few earthquakes are recorded at depths below 450 miles because:
slabs that descend that far have been heated sufficiently to deform plastically.
Blind faults are:
faults with little or no surface expression.
One method suggested to control or prevent major damaging earthquakes is to:
control the amount of lubricating fluids between the two sides of major faults.
Seismic waves travel in a straight line with constant velocity only when moving:
in a homogenous medium at constant temperatures and pressures.
Which of the following descriptions of the behavior of seismic waves is NOT correct?
When seismic waves approach the boundary between two media at a relatively small angle, they may bounce, or reflect, off the surface.
Formation of the oceanic crust involves all of the following processes EXCEPT:
intrusion of granite at oceanic subduction zones.
Seismic tomography studies detect warmer interior regions as indicated by which phenomenon?
The Mohorovi!i discontinuity (the Moho) is:
the boundary between the crust and the mantle.
The transition zone between the upper and lower mantle is marked by:
abrupt changes in material rigidity 400 kilometers and 700 kilometers below the asthenosphere.
The mantle-core boundary has a dramatic effect on seismic waves in that:
P waves decrease in speed and S waves vanish.
The S-wave shadow zone occurs because:
S waves cannot pass through the outer part of the core.
Knowing the exact depth of a point within the Earth's interior enables us to calculate:
To determine the melting temperature of a portion of the Earth's interior, a geologist needs to know the region's:
velocity of P waves and composition.
The experiment that best simulates pressures of the Earth's core was demonstrated by:
a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell.
All of the following gravity anomalies could be expected EXCEPT:
a positive gravity anomaly over subsurface salt deposits.
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