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- Virginia
- Miller School of Albemarle
- Geometry
- Macdonald
- Geometry Exam Review

John M.

inductive reasoning

Reasoning based on observable patterns.

conjecture

A conclusion you reach using inductive reasoning.

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counterexample

Example for which the conjecture is incorrect.

ray

Part of a line consisting of one endpoint and all the points of the line on the other side.

segment

Part of a line consisting of two endpoints and all points between them.

opposite rays

Two collinear rays with the same endpoint

opposite rays always form a line

opposite rays always form a line

isometric drawing

A way of showing a three-dimensional object. It shows three sides of a figure from a corner view

orthographic drawing

Another way to show a three-dimensional figure showing a top view, front view, and right-side view.

foundational drawing

Shows the base of a structure and the height of each part.

net

A two-dimensional pattern that you can fold to form a three-dimensional figure.

point

A location with no size represented by a small dot.

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line

A series of points that extends in two opposite directions without end.

collinear points

Points that share the same line.

plane

A flat surface that has no thickness that contains many lines and extends without end in the directions of its lines.

coplaner

Points and lines that lie on the same plane.

postulate

An accepted statement of fact.

congruent segments

Two segments with the same length

midpoint

A point that divides a segment into two congruent segments.

angle

Is formed by two rays with the same endpoints called a vertex.

acute angle

An angle with measure between 0 and 90 degrees.

right angle

An angle with measure of 90 degrees.

obtuse angle

An angle with measure between 90 and 180 degrees.

straight angle

An angle with measure 180 degrees.

congruent angles

Angles with the same measure.

vertical angles

Two angles whose sides are opposite rays. They are congruent.

adjacent angles

Two coplaner angles with a common side, a common vertex, and no common interior points.

complementary angles

Two angles whose measures have a sum of 90 degrees.

supplementary angles

Two angles whose measures have sum of 180 degrees.

construction

A figure created by using a compass, strait edge, and pencil.

compass

A geometric tool used for drawing circles and arcs.

perpendicular lines

Two lines that intersect to form right angles.

perpendicular bisector

A segment, line, or ray that is perpendicular to a the segment at its midpoint, thereby bisecting the segment into two congruent segments.

angle bisector

A ray that divides an angle into two congruent coplaner angles. its endpoint is at the angle vertex.

perimeter of a rectangle

P = 2b + 2h

area of a rectangle

A = bh

circumference of a circle

C = 2πr

area of a circle

A = πr^{2}

transversal

A line that intersects two coplaner lines at two distinct points.

alternate interior angles

Angles on opposites sides of a transversal inside the two lines. Are congruent with parallel lines.

alternate exterior angles

Angles on opposites sides of a transversal outside the two lines. Are congruent with parallel lines.

same side interior angles

Angles on the same side of a transversal inside the two lines. Are supplementary with parallel lines.

same side exterior angles

Angles on the same side of a transversal outside the two lines. Are supplementary with parallel lines.

corresponding angles

Angles located in the same relative position when a transversal crosses two lines. Are congruent with parallel lines.

triangle angle sum theorem

The sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.

triangle exterior angle theorem

The measure of each exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures of its two remote interior angles.

polygon

A closed plane figure with at least three sides that are segments and no overlapping sides.

polygon angle-sum theorem

The sum of the measures of the angles of a n-gon is (n - 2)180.

polygon exterior angle-sum theorem

The sum of the measures of the exterior angles of a polygon, one at each vertex, is 360 degrees.

convex polygon

Has no diagonal with points outside the polygon.

concave polygon

Has at least one diagonal with points outside the polygon.

regular polygon

Is both equilateral and equiangular.

slope-intercept form

Equation of a line, y = mx + b.

standard form of a linear equation

Is an equation of a line, Ax + By = C

point-slope form

An equation of a line, (y-y_{1}) = m(x-x_{1})

slopes of parallel lines

If two non-vertical lines are parallel, their slopes are equal.

slopes of perpendicular lines

If two non-vertical lines are perpendicular, their slopes are negative and reciprocal. Any horizontal line and vertical line are perpendicular.

midsegment of a triangle

A segment connecting the midpoints of two sides of triangle.

Triangle Midsegment Theorem

If a segment joins the midpoints of two sides of a triangle, then the segment is parallel to the third side, and half its length.

concurrent

When three or more lines intersect in one point.

point of concurrency

The point at which three or more lines intersect.

circumcenter of the triangle

The point of concurrency of the perpendicular bisectors of a triangle.

incenter of a triangle

The point of concurrency of the angle bisectors of a triangle.

inscribed circle

A circle can be constructed inside a triangle with the center of the circle at the incenter of a triangle.

median of a triangle

In a triangle, it is a segment whose endpoints are a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side.

centroid of a triangle

The point of concurrency in a triangle where all the medians intersect.

altitude of a triangle

The perpendicular segment from a segment to the opposite vertex.

orthocenter of a triangle

The point of concurrency in a triangle where all the altitudes intersect.

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