-solutions with dissolved elements
-new minerals like clay minerals
-residual minerals like quartz
the effect of organic acids on rock. the acids are then derived from the decomposition of humus in the soil, or by direct secretions from organisms such as lichens
Headlands are formed when the sea attacks a section of coast with alternating bands of hard and soft rock.
The bands of soft rock, such as sand and clay, erode more quickly than those of more resistant rock, such as chalk. This leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea called a headland. The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the headland, are called bays.
what is a storm wave environment?
characterised by frequent low pressure systems creating strong onshore winds which generate powerful waves
-high (usually over 1 metre),
-steep fronted waves with a circular cross-profile
-high frequency (10-14 waves per minute)
-backwash is greater than swash
-occur on steeper gradient beaches which concentrates their energy on a small area and material is removed causing a gentler beach profile
-low frequency (6-8 waves per minute)
-long waves with a large wavelength (up to 100m between crests)
-low waves with an elliptical cross profile
-swash is greater than backwash
-occur predominantly on gently sloping beaches where wave energy is dissipated, and sand and shingle is gradually moved up the beach increasing its gradient and forming berms, ridges and runnels
what is congelifraction?
freeze thaw or frost shattering.
water gets into cracks in the rock or because it is a porous rock and over night it freezes and becomes ice. when water freezes it expands by 9%. the ice then puts pressure on the rock. this process is repeated until the rock begins to shatter.
-gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the oceans
-centrifugal force caused by coriolis effect
-the nature of the ocean bed
-the proximity of the land masses
-the relative position of the sun and moon
where sand and shingle are added to beaches from elsewhere. this creates wide beaches thus protecting cliffs, or the shoreline from marine processes of erosion.
- exogenous sediments may have environmental and visual drawbacks
where sand dunes are created or restored by either nourishment or stabilisation of the sand. sand dunes provide a barrier between the land and the sea, absorbing wave energy and preventing flooding and erosion.
-effective only in aeolian environments where public access can be controlled
cheaper than hard engineering
integrates with the natural environment and provides important habitats for coastal plants and animals
lower environmental and economic cost means it much more sustainable
index of residential decay
index of services and amenities
viticulture plays a big part of the economy, so the owners of the vineyards
the tourists that buy all of the wine. they led to the establishment of high quality restaurants operated by the wineries.
the US because they are the largest market for priorat wines and the current global financial crisis with its american origins is likely to have a significant negative impact on the priorat region
developmenty in SW and SE of the city
key players in nottinghams rebranding?
old maps uk (to see nottingham before the rebranding and the holderness before the erosion)
what is the relative atomic mass of an element?
q: heat lost or gained (in joules)
m: mass of water in the calorimeter or solution in the polystyrene cup
c: specific heat capacity of water (4.18)
∆T: the temperature change of the water or solution
some heat will be absorbed by the container rather than going towards heating up the water
some heat is always lost to the surroundings during the experiment (however well you insulate it)
1. for each peak, read the % relative isotopic abundance from the y-axos and the relative isotopic mass from the x-axis. multiply them together to get the total mass for each isotope
2. add up these totals
3. divide by 100
if the relative atomic abundace is not given as a percentahge divide by the total relative abundace rather than 100.
how many orbitals does an s sub-shell have and what is the maximum number of electrons it can carry?
max of 2 electrons
max of 6 electrons
max of 10 electrons
max of 14 electrons
the energy needed to remove 1 electron from each atom in 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions
O(g)----> O+(g) + e-
the energy needed to remove 1 electron from each ion in 1 mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form 1 mole of gaseous 2+ ions
O+(g)---->O2+(g) + e-
1. the first ionisation energies of elements down a group of the periodic table decrease
2. the first ionisation energies of elements generally increase across a period
what are positive ions called?
what kind of attraction holds anions and cations together and what is it called?
1. high melting points
2. often soluble in water but not in non-polar solvents
3. dont conduct electricity when solid
what does it tell you if an ionic compound doesnt conduct electricity when solid?
1.insoluble in polar solvents-shows they dont contain ions
2. form hard crstals with v. high melting points - down to network of v. strong covalent bonds
3. dont conduct electricity. all their bonding electrons are used to form covalent bonds, they contain no charged particles (exception to this rule is graphite - can conduct electricity because of delocalised electrons within its sheets of atoms
Carbon Dioxide, Linear, 180 degrees
Boron Trichloride (didn't have a boron), trigonal planar, 120 degrees
Ammonium ion (NH4+), Tetrahedral, 109.5 degrees
Ammonia (NH3), Trigonal pyramidal, 107 degrees
Water, Non-Linear or Bent, 104.5 degrees
90 degrees and 120 degrees, Trigonal Bipyramidal, Phosphorous Pentachloride.
Shape of and bond angle in SO2?
Bent or non linear and 120 degrees
Exam technique tester "Why is the shape of the molecule what it is?"
There are x lone pairs and x bonding pairs. The electron pairs repel to positions of maximum separation, so this is the lowest energy arrangement.
They increase down the group.
· Use renewable resources
· Use non-hazardous chemical
· Use catalysts for reactions
· Use reactions with high atom economies
· Use energy efficiently
· Reduce and recycle waste
· Reduce water use
· Reduce pollution from waste products
In a solution becoming less acidic, methyl orange moves from red to orange and finally to yellow with the reverse occurring for a solution increasing in acidity. The entire colour change occurs in acidic conditions.
In an acid it is reddish and in alkali it is yellow
Red in acid
Blue --> Black in alkaline solution
Green when neutral
Red paper is dyed blue in a basic solution
Blue paper is dyed red in an acidic solution
Symmetric and asymmetric bends
Symmetric and asymmetric stretches
Ozone absorbs UV: O3(g)→O2(g)+O(g)
Ozone is naturally replenished by Oxygen: O(g)+O2(g) → O3(g)