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limit medical procedures based on effectiveness
implement cost-benefit analysis
assess individuals' quality-adjusted life years and limit health care accordingly
implement cost-effectiveness analysis
increasing intensity of services
fraud, waste, and abuse
In order to allow caregivers some time off, ______ may be provided, which constitutes temporary care of dependent elders.
The major public payer of care in nursing homes is ______.
The vast majority of care for aged relatives is provided by women, typically wives, daughters, or daughters-in-law.
Public opinion poll data show that a majority of adults in the U.S. support increased taxes to help pay for a long-term care program.
Which of the following is the best predictor of sexuality in old age?
Data from National Crime Victimization Surveys show that people over age 65 are more likely than other age groups to be victims of serious crimes, such as robbery, personal theft, assault, and rape.
intolerable psychological pain and frustration
a feeling of hopelessness or helplessness
expressing the intent to kill oneself
Public entitlement programs for the health care of the elderly should be used to relieve suffering but not to extend life through the use of life-extending technology.
Ubel argues that health care rationing amounts to an egregious crime against humanity.
According to Ubel, we should be concerned with effectiveness analysis rather than rationing so that everyone has access to the same services.
For Hentoff, Callahan’s proposal becomes a “decent proposal” when Callahan suggests that age-based rationing won't go into effect until the elderly have access to long-term home care or nursing home care.
Wettle and Besdine criticize Callahan's proposal to ration health care on the basis of age
According to Perry and Butler, scientific research should be focused on which of the following activities?
reduction of frailty
improvement of health status
While they argue that the elderly are largely to blame for rising health care costs, Perry and Butler are critical of Callahan's proposal to ration health care on the basis of age.
While divesting of one's assets to qualify for Medicaid is legal, Strauss and Lederman argue that it is an unethical practice.
According to Blaser, those who support paying family caregivers do so for which of the following reasons?
Paying family caregivers supports and strengthens family values.
Clients have a choice between hiring a family member to provide care or hiring a stranger.
Workers would not have to be recruited, hired, trained, supervises, or paid benefits or health insurance.
Blaser argues that direct payments to families for caregiving should be avoided; and instead, services that complement and support family members should be provided.
Family responsibility for caregiving would diminish.
The quality of the caregiving experience for care recipient and caregiver would decrease.
Public expenditures would increase.
Parens patriae refers to which of the following powers?
There who are generally no limits to the individual's right to exercise self-determination.
Which of the following protective functions may result when health professionals assist caregivers in recognizing the limits of their own health, identifying supportive services, and sharing caregiving responsibilities among available family members?
The “least restrictive alternative” refers to which of the following?
Which of the following terms has been used to describe elderly patients who appear filthy and unkempt, whose homes are dirty and untidy, but who show no shame for their situation?
There is a clear-cut psychopathology that explains the tendency in some individuals to neglect themselves.
McKhann prefers to use which of the following terms to describe the person who wishes to die and asks for help?
Kass argues that defining categories of “euthanizable” people is a fairly easy and straightforward task.
The “sex ratio” refers to which of the following?
the feminization of poverty
Older people tend to have ______ wealth than younger people and ______ incomes compared to other adults in the U.S.
Income tends to increase after retirement because of the increasing value of home equity as a proportion of assets.
Since the 1980´s, the income of older people in the U.S has grown faster than the income of younger people.
Older Americans have much higher levels of total wealth compared with younger people.
In recent years, poverty among the old has been ______, while poverty among young people has been ______.
When did Congress recognize that Social Security could no longer operate in the future as a purely pay-as-you-go system?
in the 1980's
Since the 1950’s, the average age of retirement has ______.
Which law forbade older workers from being limited or treated in any way that would harm their employment possibilities?
About half of men and women over 65 are retired while the other half are working.
Older workers have less absenteeism, lower job turnover, and a lower accident rate than younger workers.
Chronological aging effects.
Period effects from the past.
Period effects in the future.
Sources of diversity, such as ethnicity, class, and gender.
The generation of the “Boomers” refers to people who were born in the United States between 1946 and 1964.
Boomers were the first generation in American history where more than half achieved some level of higher education.
Thurow argues that means-tested benefits for the elderly would be opposed by young and old alike.
advances in medicine
aging of the baby boom generation
declining fertility rates
It would apply to all federal benefits regardless of the beneficiary's age.
Those whose household income falls below the median would retain full benefits.
Households above the median income would lose 10 percent of their benefit for each additional $10,000 in income.
The privatization of Social Security is more consistent with the generational interdependence framework than with the generational equity framework.
The legacy debt refers to the excess Social Security benefits paid to early beneficiaries who contributed minimal payroll taxes.
Personal accounts would give people wealth to pass on to their heirs.
Personal accounts would move Social Security from a “pay-as-you-go” system to a “pre-funding model”.
Personal accounts would enable people to supplement reduced Social Security benefits with wealth built up in their accounts.
According to Ponnuru, setting up personal accounts in Social Security would not increase the federal deficit.
According to Thompson, the only way to ensure the continued solvency of Social Security is to reduce benefits.
“Productive aging”, as defined by Caro, Bass, and Chen, includes which of the following activities?
visiting with family and friends
Caro, Bass, and Chen argue that chronological age is a strong predictor of performance in physical and mental activities.
The retirement role in contemporary society can be characterized as “nonproductive aging”.
Freedman is baffled that older Americans don't do more volunteering for which of the following reasons?
Many older people want to be more involved.
Social ties and community engagement have been linked to better physical and mental health.
Older adults vote at a higher rate than any other age group.
According to a 1996 Gallup poll, the proportion of adults who volunteered ______ between 1989 and 1995.
Retirement frees up more time for men than for women.
Individuals who uphold the “busy ethic” include which of the following?
older workers and retirees
friends, relatives, and coworkers of older workers and retirees
institutional conservators, such as those who market products and services to seniors
In the story, what does the “perfect economic storm”refer to?
Seventy-seven million people retiring during a time of economic crisis.
In the excerpt from Buckley’s novel of political satire, Boomsday refers to the 2011, when the first of the Baby Boomers begin to retire with full Social Security benefits.
What does the analogy “like watching a pig move through a python” refer to?
Roszak asserts that the Boomer generation will change the meaning of old age, that it will constitute a different kind of older population.
According to Goldsmith, the Boomer crisis predicted by the “catastropharians” can’t be avoided—it is inevitable.
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