Chlorophyll A and B, starch as storage product, cellulose in cell walls.
Give brief synopsis of what happens from microsporangium to sperm? In other words the male phase of the seeded plants.
The microsporangium will undergo meiosis and produce microspores which will eventually turn into pollen grains, otherwise known as micromateophytes. These microgametophytes, each containing a few cells, will have one of them undergo mitosis to produce 2 sperm cells after pollination.
What occurs after fertilization in the gymnosperm life cycle?
The integument becomes the seed coat and the ovule becomes the seed. There is food reserve derived from the female gametophyte and a 2n embryo within the seed. A seedling will eventually blossom into a sporophyte. Pollination to seed can take up to three years
What are the functions of the phases of cellular division with respect to meiosis?
Prophase: the diploid cell with 4n DNA are now sister chromatids and pairs of these align to form tetrads; the non sister chromatids wil connect at the chiasma points ( crossing-over )
Metaphase I: tetrads align at cell equator
Anaphase I: sister chromatid begin moving toward opposite poles
Metaphase II: 1N chromosomes align at metaphase plate
Anaphase II: chromatids separate and begin moving toward different poles ( becomes 1N)
Telophase II: nuclear envelope forms and 4 1N daugter cells are produced
What does Menel's Law of Segregation say?
Two alleles separate during meiosis and end up in two different gametes.
Give brief synopsis of what happens from megasporangium to egg. In other words, the female phase.
The megasporagium undergoes meiosis and gives rise to Megaspores which are enclosed in ovules (unfertilized seeds). These ovules will eventually give rise to the megagametophyte and finally the egg cell. The ovule has a section called the micropyle within the integument, where the pollen grains will actually be physically transferred.
What are the main differences between bryophyte and charophytes?
In bryophytes, both the haploid (dominant in bryophyte) an diploid phase are multicellular (alternation of generations) and the egg is fertilized inside the archegonia.
Describe the other four phases of cellular division with respect to mitosis?
Prophase: four chromosomes, each with two chromatids condense, and nuclear membrane degrades
Metaphase: chromosomes line up on the plate
Anaphase: chromatids are pulled apart
Telophase: cellular division occurs and nuclear membrane reforms.
What does blue light regulate?
Stomatal opening, phototrophism, light induced slowing of hypocotlyl elongation.
What are some of the life cycle similarities between chlmydonomas and coleochaete ( a charophyte ) ? These are life cycles similar to plants ancestral to land.
Photosynthetic body is haploid, mitosis gives rise to gamete like cells, one gamete is motile while other stays attached, fusion results in zygote which undergoes immediate meiosis, and those haploid cells undergo mitosis.
What do seeds require?
Reduction in the size of the gametophyte (from that of pterophytes), heterospory, and retention of the female haploid phase within the tissue produced by the parent
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