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During industrialization period1800’s
Child labor was common in the1800’s. They were used because they could pay them less without them protestingit. “Use and abuse”. Poor working conditions because machines could cause themto get caught. No regulations on child labor until the 1830’s.
Ghandi was awesternized elite of India who was loyal to Great Britain. When he became alawyer and traveled to South Africa from England, he experienced discriminationon the train from white authorities who told him he could not ride in thesection.
Britishused India to grow opium and traded illegally with China. Many chinesepeople became addicted to the drug and the wealth flowed out of china ratherthan into china. Chineseofficials wished to end the spread of opium, andconfiscated supplies of opium from British traders. The British government,although not officially denying China's right to control imports, objected tothis seizure and used its military power to violently enforce redress. The British win the war and with the Treaty ofNanjing they forced 5 ports to open to British residence and allowed theBritish merchants to trade with Chinese merchants.
Belgium Occupation in 1916 to 1962
Colonialism andthe policy of indirect rule: the Whites maintained control, but gave authorityto people on the local level to the indigenous elites. It reinforced andexaggerated authoritarian tendencies in local cultures. Colonial policyaggravated ethnic and cultural divisions.Therewere two groups that weren’t seperaetribes but they occupied Rwanda- Tutsis and Hutus.
During theEnlightenment: European intellectuals tried to figure things out themselves byobserving the natural world in a systematic way.
People could be classified as different based on their physical features
JJ Wincklemann’s History of Ancient Art(1764): declaredthat the ancient Greek ideal of human beauty, see in Greek statues was best.
Deviationsfrom the “beautiful flat face” was seen as a sign on inferiority.
Formof cultural chauvenism where one culture is superior overanother
A dinner menu for the members of the Indian Civil Service in 1904. Thedrawings on the menus convey a message about the British “civilizing mission”in India. There are scenes of how the British helped develop irrigation systemsfor farming and agriculture. British colonizers think they are helping theIndians by teaching them “better” ways to do thinngs. They provided a structured system forthe Indians to keep them in order. The British colonial administration perceivecolonialism as something that is uplifting to the poor people of India.
Kwame Nkrumah “African Socialism naitionalizedprivate firms. Overthrown by nationl liberation Council in 1966.
Coco prces fell in early 1960s= government revenuedried up and cause a lot of debt.
Western capitalist did not want to investin goods from Ghana
Tried to hide failures but creatingstatues of worship for himself. Created an authoritarian government.
The National Liberation Council overthrewNkrumah in a military coup in 1966
It replaced the muzzle loading rifle. Itwas easy to reload, you didn't have to stand up to reload it, and it was fasterto reload.
Adrawing from Jules Vernes 1886 short novel: Robur theConqueror
Focusedon the adventures of an engineer who created a flying ship to explore the world
Goesto West Africa to intervene militarily from the air shooting into the groundand scattering the Africans to free prisoners of war.
Encapsulatesthe European perspective on new Imperialism. The violence enabled by moderntechnology was used to bring rule to those who needed it.
Theairship transforms the European teacher and colonizer into a superhero savingthe poor humans who need it
WorldWar one destroyed western moral authoritybecause they claimed their technologyrepresented progress. Violence was supposed to bring peace and order and notsuppression.
German Humor magazine 1896
“we regardItaly’s intentions on Ethiopia without any jelousy”
TheEthiopian woman is chasing the man who represents the Italian Nation state,away. He is holding rifles that are arranged like flowers, which refers to whenthe Italian nation state declared war on Ethiopia in hopes to make an Italiancolony in 1895. They wanted to create a bigger African colonial empire and theythought the war was going to be easy. The Ethiopian army was larger than theItalian army which consisted of mostly Africans. (Battle of Adowa 1896)
Ethiopiansuccess sent shockwave throughout Europe. British and Ethiopians pushedItalians out by 1941.
Around themid 20thcentury after 1945.
Had less unemployment, had guest workersin West Germany needed workers for the booming economy. Lives of ordinary people improveddramatically; living standards and wages lifted
World War 1 (1914-1918)
Britain,France,Russia vs. Germany, Austria-Hungary, OttomanEmpire, Italy
Foughtwith machine guns, battleships, cannons,bombs, and machine tanks
How could the Europeans claim that they havethe right to civilize Africans and Indians if they are the most uncivilized
Europeansadmitted that violence was in the name of the greater good
GaveAfricans and Asians a reason to embrace their own culture again.
**Trench warfare occurred when a revolution in firepower wasnot matched by similar advances in mobility,resulting in a grueling form of warfare in which the defender held theadvantage.
Decolonizationwas rapid after WWII: British withdrew from Africa in 1950s and 60s and therest of Europe followed.
External pressure: from outside empires; the world opinionhad turned away from the idea of colonies
Rooseveltpressure Churchill with the Atlantic charter to respect the right of all peopleto choose the form of government under which they will live.
UnitedNations 1945 peaceful resolution; non-whites were members(China) officialopinion of decolonization
Internal pressure: European actions during WWII fuelednationalists
Reevaluatingthe value of holding onto the colonies
Colonialdevelopment projects didn’t work, pushed colonial budget to deficit in BelgianCongo
Mau Mau Kenyan Political Movement in 1950s
Militiant African nationalist movement bythe people of Kenya
militant African nationalistmovement that originated in the 1950s among the Kikuyupeople of Kenya.The Mau Mau(origin of the name is uncertain) advocated violent resistance to Britishdomination in Kenya; the movement was especially associated with the ritualoaths employed by leaders of the Kikuyu Central Association to promote unity inthe independence movement.
Violent fighting, mass arrests and torture to stiflerebellion, concentration camps
The JallianwalaBaghmassacre(also known as the Amritsar massacre),took place in the Jallianwala Baghpublic garden in the northern Indian city of Amritsar on13 April 1919. The shooting that took place was ordered by Brigadier-General Reginald E.H. Dyer.
On Sunday, 13 April 1919, Dyer wasconvinced of a major insurrection and thus he banned all meetings. On hearingthat a meeting of 15,000 to 20,000 people including women, children and theelderly had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh,Dyer went with fifty Gurkhariflemen to a raised bank and ordered them to shoot at the crowd. Dyercontinued the firing for about ten minutes, until the ammunition supply wasalmost exhausted
Chinese are industrializing. burning of coal and oil. by year 2007 china surpassed us on how many tons of CO2 are being emitted. Graph showing the growth in China’s carbon emissions due to Chinese economic development. China is steadily growing into fossil fuel consumption. China emits more Carbon dioxide than the US and Canada put together. This jump began in the early 1990's and 2000's. Russia’s emissions decline when the Soviet Union collapses showing economic decline. Per person the USA uses more fossil fuels than those in China.
Marx wasan advocate of socialism and today there are symbols of his influence inRussia, China, and other European and Asain countries, as well as the Caribbean
It ispossible to create a society with no class divisions, no poverty, with socialjustice, and where everyone is happy and fulfilling their potential.
Socialismtriumphed first in those nations that had little industry and proletarians
Globalization: The integration ofeconomies, cultures, and government policies around the world, characterized bythe rapid global movement of goods. peoples, and money.
World War One
Nazi Propaganda in 1933 to promote fascism
Sayyid Qutb, Eqyption (19
Him behind bars during his trial in Eqypt on charges he was helping an effort tooverthrow the government. He was hanged in 1966
Hu Yaobang 1984
SecretaryGeneral of Chinese communist party
Activist against the government practices in Iran. Hetold hi mom not to be sad but to be proud that he was standing up against theviolence in Iran. Students were randomly murdered
labor migration in the 2nd ½ of 20thcentury
Modern develop increased globalization
i.e. into western Europe
Voluntary labor migration involving hugenumbers of people who migrate to distant parts of the globe to become a freemarket wage laborer, not slaves. Laborers moving from poor regions to regionswith developed economies where they could find jobs
Most were African Americans, LatinAmericans, and Asians
European nations revived fromdevastations of WWII, engaged in economic planning, got help from US.Economyexploded: more jobs created than they had workers to fill those jobsHeavymigration into Europe because of decolonization. GBmade it easy for Indians and Pakistanians tomove to Britain
Berlin Conference of 1884
regulated European colonization andtrade in Africaduring the New Imperialismperiod, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Theconference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by Europeanpowers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of African autonomy andself-governance.
Theytried to figure out how to divide Africa but they were ignorant to the alreadyexisting boundaries.
Ignorantof ethnic and cultural boundaries
Boundtogether powerful nations and cause huge turmoil among both powerful nations
Createdcolonies that were unstable, some only contained part of the group.
Therewas instability after decolonization
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China startedby a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreigndevils"(British). The rebellion was ended by British troops
Sparked bymounting pressure on China by the West
Therighteous and harmonious fists attacked the Christian converts and westernmissionaries
Franz Fanon wrote “The wretched of theearth”
Leading theorist of decolonization
Decolonization was more than justviolence, there was the psychological effect. The colonizers twisted the mindsof the colonized to brainwash them to see the white man’s ways are better andthe people aren’t capable of independence. Their own culture is worthless,their culture really began when the whites took over.
Colonialism is a state of mind,psychological oppression.
Gay male club in NYC
Men confronting police during theStonewall Riots of 1969 in NYC
Against the law to serve alcohol to gaymen
The Postwar rise of East Asia
Japan: Economic growth was not due to military power, stronggovernment intervention whose main focus was the economy
Advantages of Pacific Rim Countries:Strong Ethnic unity encouraged their citizens to be less individualistic tosacrifice for the nation, influence by confuscianisticvalues, also had military and economic support from west after WWII
its economic and cultural dimensions
transnational corporations restructuringeconomies of poor regions to suit their needs and to supply wealthier peopleswith cheap goods and labor. Determining local wages, weakening environmentallaws and regulations on businesses.
Neocolonialism= cultural imperialism?reshaping cultures and values of poorer regions in ways that serve theinterests
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