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What action moves food through the GI?
What is Chyme?
Semi-liquid bolus that leaves the stomach into the GI
What are segmentation contractions?
The main type of mixing contraction in the small intestines.
What part of the GI is skeletal muscle? What part is smooth muscle?
skeletal = PHARYNX, UPPER 1/3 OF ESOPHAGOUS AND ANAL SPHINCER.
The rest is smooth muscle.
What are the two types of contractile tissue in the GI?
CIRCULAR muscle, decreasing the diameter of the GI, and LONGITUDINAL TISSUE, decreasing the length of the GI
How are slow wave electrical activities distributed in the GI?
3/min in stomach, 12 duodenum, 8-9 in ileum
What is the ICC?
The interstitial cells of CAJAL - intestinal pacemakers. Generates slow waves. they're located between circular and longitudinal muscle
What cranial nerve innervates the muscles of mastication?
What controls the rhythmic motion of chewing?
The BRAIN STEM
What are the 3 phases of swallowing?
The swallowing centres in phase 2 of swallowing are located where?
in the medulla and lower pons.
What is the UES?
Upper esophageal sphincter
What initiates gastric reflux?
Relaxation of the LES (lower esophageal sphincter)
What is GERD?
Gastro-esophageal reflex disorder
What are the 5 parts of the stomach and the two regions?
Cardia, body, fundus, antrum, pyloris
ORAD and CAUDAD regions
What is the difference between the ORAD and CAUDAD regions?
Oral = thin walls, CAUDAD = thick walls
Swallowing induces receptive relaxation of what two places? This is part of what reflex>
The LES and the ORAD region of the stomach, which is initated as a vasovagal reflex.
What is retropulsion?
Food gets pushed into the antrum when te pyloric sphincer closes...the caudad region fills up.
Eventually it opens back up and the caudad region ejects the chyme in SPURTS.
How long does gastric emptying take? What types of foods move fastest?
liquids move fastest
isotonics move faster than hyper or hypo
How is non-digestables emptied from the stomach?
by the MIGRATING MYOELECTRIC COMPLEX which happens during an interdigestive period.
Where is slow wave frequency highest and lowest in the small intestine?
highest in duodenum
lowest in the ileum
What are the two types of contractions on the small intestine?
emptying from the small intestine happens at what valve?
The ileocecal valve
it's normally closed until some peristalsis opens it up or some shit.
what are the two main functions of the colon?
fluid and electrolyte absorption
What are the two main movement types of the colon?
Mixing and propulsion
How many times a day does the colon move it's material? what are these movements called?
They are called mass movements, and they occur approximately 1-3 times a day/
Rectal distention relaxes what sphincter?
The internal rectal sphincter
True or false; vomitting is under conscious control
Not really true. It's largely regulated by the brain stem vomitting center and the nucleus tractus solitarus.
What type of movements happen during vomiting?
Antiperistalsis, usually before it happens.
Why can dental problems occur in patients with bulemia nervosa?
Because the acid contents of the acid reflux is incredibly bad for the teeth and can lead to cariogenic properties because it destroys the enamel.
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