What receptor does histamine bind to on the pareital cell?
The H2 receptor
what is the most potent diet inhibitor of gastric acid secretion?
What is waterbrush and what diseases does it indicates?
excessive secretion of salvia into the mouth. May occur in patients with peptic ulcer disease or oesophagitis
What does ACh bind to on the parital cell?Does it stimulate of inhibit the parietal cell?
ACH binds to the M3 muscarinic receptor on the parietal basolateral membraneStimulate the cell.
How does the mucosal injury via NSAIDs occur?
Stops the production of Prostaglandins which in turn Increases mucosal permeability to hydrogen ions ↑ mucosal permeability to sodium ions. ↓rapid generation and migration of new epithelial cells
What is a gastric ulcer?
An ulcer is a breach in the mucosa that extends through the muscularis mucosa into the submucosa or deeper.
What are the mechanisms of gastroduodenal protection by endogenous PGs?
Stimulation of mucin secretion by epithelial cells. Stimulation of bicardonate secretion. Stimulation of phospholipid secretion Vasodilation→ ↑mucosal blood flow. ↑cell proliferation. PGE2 reduces gastric acid scretion
What does tenesmus mean?
Tenesmus is the feeling that you constantly need to pass stools, even though your bowels are already empty.
What amount of stool volume is required for a condition to be considered diarrhea?
>200ml in 24hours
What is the max aborptive capacity of the small intestine?
What is the usual amount of aborption of the duodeum and the jejunum?
What is the usual amount of absorption of the colon?
What is the max absorptive ability of the colon?
Inflammation induced diarrhoea results from several mechanisms
§Stimulated secretion and inhibit absorption §Stimulation of enteric nerves causing propulsive contractions and stimulated secretion §Mucosal destruction and ↑ permeability Nutrient maldigestion and malabsorption.
How does the H2 breath test work to diagnosis lactose intolerance?
Lactose if not absorbed in the small intestine travels to the colon where colonic bacteria ferment it and produce hydrogen. In people with lactase deficiency the amount of lactose reaching the colon is high hence high amounts of hydrogen produced
Small amount of stool ↑frequency ↑urgency Tenesmus (“ten” “is” “mus”)(the desire to defecate) Mucus present blood present What area of the GI system if affected with diarhoea?
the recto-sigmoid area
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